Some of the major biogeochemical cycles are as follows: (1) Water bicycle or Hydrologic cycle (2) Carbon-Cycle (3) Nitrogen bike (4) Oxygen Cycle.

The producers of an ecosystem take up several simple inorganic nutrient from your non-living environment. This materials acquire transformed right into the bio fixed of the producers. Climate they are utilised by the consumer population and are eventually returned come the atmosphere with the help of the reducers or decomposers.




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This cyclic exchange the nutrient material between the life or­ganisms and also their non-living atmosphere is referred to as biogeochemical cycle. As shown by the surname the nutrients circulate through life {bio) and also through planet (geo) consistently (cycle). The biogeochemical (material or nutrient) cycles conserve the minimal source of raw materials in the environment.

Common Biogeochemical Cycles are:

(1) Water bike or Hydrologic Cycle:

In this cycle;

(a) Water native the transpiring plants, oceans, rivers and lakes evaporates right into the environment


(b) these water vapours subsequently cool and condense to form clouds and also water.

(c) Water return to the earth as rain and also snow.

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(2) Carbon-Cycle:

Most that the carbon dioxide start the living human being through photosynthesis. The organic compounds synthesised are passed indigenous the producer (green plants) to the consumers (herbivores and carnivores). Throughout respiration, plants and also animals relax carbon earlier to the surrounding medium as carbon-dioxide. The dead bodies of plants and also animals and also the body wastes, i m sorry accumulate carbon compounds, room decomposed by micro-organisms to relax carbon dioxide.


Carbon is likewise recycled during burning of fossil fuels.

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(3) Nitrogen Cycle:

Nitrogen the the setting is in the elemental form and can not be used thus by life organisms. It needs to be “fixed” i.e. Merged with other facets such as hydrogen, carbon or oxygen to come to be usable for the environment-friendly plants.

Nitrogen is repeatedly entering right into the air by the action of denitrifying bacteria and also returning come the cycle through the action of lightening and electrification.

(4) Oxygen Cycle:

Oxygen forced for respiration in plants and animals enters the body straight from the surrounding medium (air or water).

Oxygen returns to the surroundings in the type of Carbon-dioxide or water. It likewise enters the tree body as carbon dioxide and water throughout photosynthesis and also is released in the form of molecule oxygen together a by-product in the very same proc­ess for use in respiration. Thus, the cycle is completed.

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Ecosystem is a functional system which in a balanced condition, is self-sufficient and also self-regulating. A well balanced ecosystem is necessary for the survive of all living organisms. Organisms at each trophic level in a food chain are preyed ~ above by an biology at the next higher trophic level, because that example, herbivores feed on the plants and are in turn consumed by the predators.


If the numbers of herbivores rise in a particular area, there will be a rapid damage of the vegetation, which consequently will eventually damage the herbivores (due to lack of food). So, the population of herbivores is preserved in check by predators such together lions and also tigers.

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Through this interactions in the food web, the populace of every species, is held in inspect by the delivering capacity the the atmosphere i.e. The environment’s capacity to provide room and food to the organisms, and the ecosystem maintains its balance (ecological balance or balance that nature).

The tendency of the organic systems to resist adjust and to continue to be in a state that dynamic equilibrium is recognized as homeostasis (homeo = same; stasis = standing).


Generally, the ecosystems are called after the form of organism and also habitat conditions, e.g.:

(a) woodland ecosystem

(b) meadow ecosystem

(c) Desert ecosystem


(d) Aquatic ecosystem

(e) crop ecosystem

(f) city ecosystem

However, numerous ecosystems can be inter-related and sometimes several little ecosystems (micro ecosystems) type a large ecosystem (macro ecosystem) for instance,

Bird ecosystem → Tree ecosystem → forest ecosystem → Terrestrial ecosystem → people ecosystem


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