Mount Everest is the highest peak on planet at 29,028 feet above sea level.

The rock at the height of the top is a naval limestone, deposit on the sea floor about 450 million year ago! This is an amazing fact that begs the concern - just how did that rock obtain there? In this conversation we will try to answer the question. The subject we will cover include:

review of Stress and also Strain Brittle Deformation – Faults and Joints Ductile deformation – crease Mountain building Processes

Stress and Strain

We start our discussion with a quick review the the ideas of stress and strain. Remind that anxiety is a pressure acting top top a product that to produce a strain. Anxiety is a force applied over one area and therefore has actually units of Force/area (like lb/in 2 ). Press is a tension where the pressures act same from all directions.

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If stress and anxiety is not equal from all directions then we say the the stress is a differential stress. Three kinds the differential stress and anxiety occur. Tensional tension (or extensional stress), which follow me rock; Compressional stress, i m sorry squeezes rock; and also Shear stress, which an outcome in slippage and translation.
When rocks deform castle are claimed to strain. A strain is a readjust in size, shape, or volume the a material. We here modify that meaning somewhat to say the a strain additionally includes any kind of movement of the material, including translation and tilting.

Stages that Deformation

When a rock is subjected to raising stress that passes v 3 succeeding stages the deformation.

Elastic Deformation -- within the strain is reversible. Ductile Deformation -- inside the strain is irreversible. Fracture - irreversible stress, overload wherein the product breaks.
We can divide materials into two classes that rely on their relative habits under stress. Brittle materials have a little or huge region that elastic habits but only a small region of ductile behavior before they fracture. Ductile materials have actually a small an ar of elastic behavior and also a big region that ductile behavior before they fracture.

How a material behaves will depend on numerous factors. Amongst them are: Temperature - at high temperature molecules and also their bonds deserve to stretch and move, therefore materials will certainly behave in much more ductile manner. At low Temperature, materials are brittle. Confining pressure - in ~ high confining pressure products are less likely to fracture due to the fact that the pressure of the surroundings has tendency to hinder the formation of fractures. At short confining stress, material will be brittle and tend to fracture sooner. Strain rate -- at high stress, overload rates product tends come fracture. At short strain rates much more time is obtainable for individual atoms to move and also therefore ductile actions is favored. ingredient -- some minerals, like quartz, olivine, and also feldspars are very brittle. Others, prefer clay minerals, micas, and calcite are much more ductile This is because of the chemical bond species that hold them together. Thus, the mineralogical composition of the rock will certainly be a factor in determining the deformational habits of the rock. Another aspect is existence or lack of water. Water shows up to threaten the chemistry bonds and forms films around mineral grains follow me which slippage have the right to take place. For this reason wet rock tends to act in ductile manner, while dried rocks have tendency to law in brittle manner.
Brittle-Ductile properties of the Lithosphere

We all know that rocks close to the surface of the earth behave in a brittle manner. Crustal rocks room composed of minerals like quartz and feldspar which have high strength, particularly at low pressure and temperature. Together we go deeper in the planet the toughness of this rocks at first increases.
in ~ a depth of about 15 km we with a point called the brittle-ductile transition zone. Below this point rock toughness decreases since fractures come to be closed and also the temperature is higher, do the rocks behave in a ductile manner. At the basic of the late the rock type changes come peridotite i m sorry is affluent in olivine. Olivine is stronger than the minerals that consist of most crustal rocks, therefore the upper component of the mantle is again strong. But, just as in the crust, raising temperature at some point predominates and also at a depth of about 40 kilometres the brittle-ductile change zone in the mantle occurs. Below this suggest rocks behave in an significantly ductile manner.

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Deformation in Progress

Only in a couple of cases walk deformation of rocks occur at a price that is observable on human time scales. Abrupt deformation along faults, usually connected with earthquakes wake up on a time range of minute or seconds. Steady deformation along faults or in locations of uplift or subsidence deserve to be measure over durations of months to years v sensitive measure up instruments.

Evidence of previous Deformation

Evidence that deformation the has emerged in the past is really evident in crustal rocks. Because that example, sedimentary strata and lava flows typically follow the legislation of original horizontality. Thus, as soon as we check out such strata inclined instead of horizontal, evidence of an episode of deformation.

Since countless geologic functions are planar in nature, us a way to uniquely define the orientation of a planar feature we an initial need to specify two state - strike and also dip.