About this Activity

Created by:Center because that Legislative Archives, nationwide ArchivesHistorical Era:The an excellent Depression and World battle II (1929-1945)Thinking Skill:Historical analysis & InterpretationBloom"s Taxonomy:AnalyzingGrade Level:High School
Students will certainly analyze a politics cartoon by Clifford Berryman by identifying the artistic techniques Berryman offered to convey his message around the state that the civilization in the main leading approximately the start of world War II.

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Suggested to teach Instructions

Students will discoverhow political cartoonists employ a variety of artistic techniques to convey their point of check out by assessing a politics cartoon from respectable 30, 1939,It"s a great Act however it"s hard on the Spectators,by Clifford Berryman. This task can be offered when teaching about the start of WWII and also American, British, and also French responses come German expansion.For qualities 9–12. Almost right time is 30–45 minutes.This activity can be presented to the entire course or completed by students individually or in groups. For example, you may wish to conduct a evaluation of common artistic techniques of politics cartoons together a class. Next, have actually students job-related individually or in little groups to brand the different techniques they discover in the cartoon using the "+Add Text" feature. In every label, student should include how the artist offers each technique. Because that example, if students determine a symbol, they should include what they think the price represents. Finally, questioning students to share the techniques they uncovered with the class and conduct the "When You"re Done" ar as a class discussion. Or, you deserve to ask students to submit their individual answers.
Personification:A human kind used to represent an idea or thing.Symbol: A visual element that represents something else. Symbols are regularly objects supposed to stand for ideas.
Analogy: A to compare of 2 otherwise unequal things based on the resemblance of a details aspect. Analogies are regularly used come explain facility ideas.
Irony: Expressing opposing of what is expected, or illustrating a case to be a certain means on the surface, when it is very different from how things yes, really are.
To decode Berryman"s message and understand which methods he employs in this cartoon, it may be advantageous for students come consult the front web page of the newspaper in i beg your pardon this cartoon initially appeared: the august 20, 1939 execution of the Washington evening Star. This is obtainable on Chronicling America, a historical newspaper database sponsored by the nationwide Endowment because that the Humanities and also the Library the Congress.
Possible student LabelsStudent answers identify the imaginative techniques will vary, but should include the following:Personification:The three seated numbers in the cartoon personify countries (from left to right) The United says (Uncle Sam), great Britain (John Bull), and also France (often illustrated by Berryman as a guy in a top hat and also mustache). Note: students may likewise identify the 3 seated numbers as symbols, i m sorry is acceptable.
Symbol:The rifle can represent the mobilization that German pressures on the polishing border. The could likewise represent the militarization of Germany under Hitler"s rule.The human being or globe can represent the world order as interpreted at the time.The act of Hitler balancing the rifle and globe top top his nose can represent the precarious balance between peace and war that Europe faced at the time.The severity of response shown through the three seated numbers in the cartoon represents your nearness come Germany. France is the many visibly concerned.Exaggeration:Berryman drew the number personifying France as having a heightened solution to Hitler"s balancing act. Huge drops of sweat are rolling down his face and his cap is flying turn off of his head. This exaggeration draws attention to the fact that France and Germany re-superstructure a border and that German mobilization ~ above the polish border, along with the addition of other borderlands, might mean France is in peril of a German invasion.Analogy: Berryman compare the united States, an excellent Britain, and France come anxious, however passive, spectators the a circus act. The U.S. Policies of isolationism and also neutrality, and great Britain and also France"s policies of appeasement, have actually let Hitler achieve his expansion goals for this reason far. The analogy additionally connects to language typically used in the Washington night Star about the europe Situation, introduce to great Britain together "watching" the occasions unfold through concern, simply as circus goers might be captivated by a daring circus act.Irony: Referring come a serious threat together a "good act" is an example of irony. In the subtitle for the cartoon, Berryman describes Hitler"s balancing act together a "good act." However, this is no an act in the theatrical sense, and also it"s not a ~ do so threat. The mobilization the German troops at the polish border might acquire more territory by provoking are afraid that will lead to appeasement by various other European nations, or v war. One of two people of these outcomes are not necessarily "good" because that the government and also people of Poland at the time of this cartoon.When You"re Done:In this activity, student are evaluating a politics cartoon as a job-related of art, so their interpretations might vary; yet their answers to the wrap-up questions have to align come the themes below.What people events are portrayed in this cartoon?
What is artist Clifford Berryman"s allude of see on these events?How walk Berryman convey his point of watch through creative techniques in this cartoon?Berryman depicts the development of Nazi Germany and the French, British, and also American responses to Germany"s mobilization follow me the polishing border in this cartoon. Berryman views Germany"s mobilization as a threat to the human being order, as illustrated through the symbol of a globe balancing ~ above a rifle. By using the analogy of a circus act, Berryman illustrates his view of Hitler as in control of the case in Europe through France, good Britain, and the United says fearfully the town hall his following move. That Berryman represents the people as hanging in the balance may additionally indicate a are afraid that American policies that have actually kept the United states on the sidelines will not insulate the nation from the Nazi threat. Berryman likewise uses exaggeration of the functions of the spectating countries to records the tension in these countries at this time.

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AdditionalClass discussion QuestionsPolitical cartoons perform not depict occasions as lock happened, however should be read as proof of opinions and also moods of the time from i beg your pardon they space from. The being said, how can this politics cartoon add to our understanding of world War II? Which other perspectives would certainly you want to examine from this time period? How might they be various from the artist"s? Berryman refers to Germany"s expansion and military escalation as an act that is "hard ~ above the spectators." What other difficulties might a country face in stimulate to keep a plan of appeasement (in the situation of good Britain and France) or isolationism (the united States) in the challenge of German military escalation and also expansion?
Additional background Information and also Political Cartoon Resources
This cartoon was attracted by Clifford Berryman, one of Washington, DC"s best-known cartoonists in the at an early stage to mid-1900s. Berryman attracted for theWashington PostandEvening Starnewspapers. His cartoons touched on a variety of subjects consisting of politics, elections, and both civilization Wars.A arsenal of 2,400 initial pen-and-ink illustrations by Clifford K. Berryman native the U.S. Senate collection is housed in ~ the center for legislature Archives at the nationwide Archives.The center has produced a selection ofresourceswhich function the cartoons including eBooks, exhibits, lesson plans, and also more.You may likewise find it beneficial to sharedocument evaluation worksheetsfor assessing political cartoons v your students.