Look at the atom displayed below. It has actually 3 every of protons, neutron andelectrons, and represents that element Lithium (Li). If we were to writeout the surname symbolically, it would certainly be 6Li.

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Lithium Atom

Lithium has only one electron in it"s outermost shell.What would occur if us were to remove that electron?


Without the outermost electron, the lithium atom would have morepositive fees (+3) than an unfavorable charges (-2). An atom v a differentnumber of electrons to protons would certainly be dubbed an ion.Elements choose lithium that loosened their electrons type positive ions.Symbolically, we deserve to represent this as Li+1. Other elementstend to acquire electrons. Oxygen is a an excellent example of one of these:


Oxygen Atom

Oxygen has actually a complete of 8 electrons normally, but only 6 of theseare in the outermost shell or orbital. Aspects prefer to have complete outershells. They likewise prefer to gain to this state as quickly as possible.Above, the was less complicated for lithium to lose one electron than to get 7electrons. Similarly, it is simpler for oxygen to gain 2 electrons insteadof loosing 6 electrons:


Oxygen Ion

The two gained electrons (purple dots) way that this oxygenion has actually 10 electron (-10 charge) and only 8 protons (+8 charge), offering the iona net fee of -2. Symbolically, we have the right to represent this oxygen ion together O-2.

The regular Table have the right to be provided to assist predict how manyelectrons there room in the outermost shell, and also hence what form of ion castle willform. Here is the same chart native the vault page, but with someadditional information added to it:


The black numbers above represent the variety of electrons in theouter shell. Notice that each column has an ext electrons in the outermostshell as you walk to the right, and also that the last heat (headed by that or Helium) hasa full outer shell. Special note: Helium has actually only 2 electrons inthe outermost shell, yet that is complete for the an initial shell. The rednumbers represent the kind of ion that the atom would form, starting with+1 ions on the left and finishing through no ions ("0") ~ above theright. Elements v a full outer shell perform not form ions.The yellow section, labeled "Transition Elements" are facets thattend to shed electrons native shells other than the outermost shell and also formpositive ions. For example, steel (Fe) creates two different positive ions,Fe+2 (ferrous iron) and Fe+3 (ferriciron). Understanding why there are various ions of stole is complex andbeyond the scope of this course. However, you should have the ability to determinethe ionic state of atoms from the other groups using a routine Table.

Quick Quiz: use the chart over to prize thefollowing questions:

What ion would a Chlorine (Cl) atom form? What ion would certainly an Aluminum (Al) atom form? What ion would a Magnesium (Mg) atom form? What ion would certainly a Potassium (K) atom form?Answers:

Chorine is in the seventh column and therefore has actually 7 electrons in its outermost shell. It would tend to acquire one electron and type a -1 ion. Aluminum is in the 5th column and also therefore has 5 electron in that is outermost shell. The would have tendency to shed three electrons and form a +3 ion. Magnesium is in the 2nd column and also therefore has 2 electron in that outermost shell. That would have tendency to shed two electrons and kind a +2 ion. Potassium is in the first column and therefore has 1 electron in that outermost shell. The would often tend to lose one electron and kind a +1 ion.Continue and learn about bonding.

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