To explain just how a covalent bond develops. To use the octet preeminence to covalent compounds

You have actually already checked out examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance pointed out formerly was water ((ceH2O)). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not written of a steel and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds.

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Electron Sharing

Previously, we questioned ionic bonding wbelow electrons can be transferred from one atom to one more so that both atoms have an energy-secure external electron shell. Since most filled electron shells have eight electrons in them, piersonforcongress.comists dubbed this tendency the octet rule. However before, there is an additional means an atom have the right to accomplish a full valence shell: atoms have the right to share electrons.

This idea deserve to be illustrated by utilizing 2 hydrogen atoms, each of which has a single electron in its valence shell. (For tiny atoms such as hydrogen atoms, the valence shell will certainly be the first shell, which holds only 2 electrons.) We can reexisting the two individual hydrogen atoms as follows:


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The Lewis diagram of 2 hydrogen atoms sharing electrons looks choose this:


This depiction of molecules is streamlined additionally by making use of a dash to recurrent a covalent bond. The hydrogen molecule is then stood for as follows:


Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, making a solitary bond and providing each atom a complete valence shell, which fulfills the octet rule:


The circles display that each fluorine atom has actually eight electrons roughly it. Just like hydrogen, we deserve to reexisting the fluorine molecule through a dash in area of the bonding electrons:



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In this molecule, the hydrogen atom does not have actually nonbonding electrons, while the fluorine atom has 6 nonbonding electrons (three lone electron pairs). The circles display how the valence electron shells are filled for both atoms.

Example (PageIndex1)

Use Lewis diagrams to indicate the development of the following:

Cl2 HBr


a. When 2 chlorine atoms create a chlorine molecule, they share one pair of electrons. In Cl2 molecule, each chlorine atom is surrounded by an octet variety of electrons.

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The Lewis diagram for a Cl2 molecule is similar to the one for F2 (displayed above).