From VOA finding out English, welcome come The making of a Nation. American history in special English. Ns Steve Ember.This mainly in ours series, we continue the story that America"s 2nd president, john Adams. He took office in 1797. He had served eight years together vice president under chairman George Washington. Now, state electors had chosen him come govern the new nation.Adams was an clever man. He was a patriot and also an maybe diplomat. Yet he go not prefer party politics. This dislike caused trouble during his presidency due to the fact that two political parties struggled because that power throughout his time in office. Adams was caught in the middle.

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John Adams was a member that the Federalist Party. Together president, the should have been party leader. Yet this position belonged to a male who really knew how to get and also use political power, Alexander Hamilton.Hamilton had actually served as treasury secretary under president Washington. Now, Hamilton to be a exclusive citizen, a lawyer in new York City. However he ongoing to have good influence end the national government. Federalists faithful to Hamilton managed the Congress.Even chairman Adams" height cabinet secretaries were loyal to Hamilton. In fact, they worked together versus the new president.This political instance made Adams" ax in office very difficult. It also led come the end of Federalist Party power.John Ferling is a professor emeritus of history at the university of West Georgia. He has written plenty of books around early American history. He says every 50 years or therefore the country experiences a duration of extreme partisanship. He says the late 1700s were such a time. That partisanship helped separation the Federalist Party.“It was a team under Hamilton who were called the ultra-federalists, or the high federalists, at the moment that to be making battle on the centrists. In their instance it resulted really in the damage of the Federalist Party. They never ever were a viable party again ~ the election of 1800.”Two significant issues marked Adams" presidency. One pertained to foreign policy. The other concerned the civil liberties of citizens.The first involved America"s relationships with France. Americans were separated on whether to support the change in France. At first, countless saw it as similar to the American change against Britain. Vice President thomas Jefferson, especially, supported the French.France helped America victory its war for freedom from Britain. The countries’ friendship continued when thomas Jefferson served as minister come Paris. But many Federalists came to strongly protest the change in France. They to be horrified by the execution that the French king and queen. They go not choose the idea of common people taking power. Federalists want an alliance v Britain. Over time, they demanded war with France. They offered their power to avoid the American government from sending a pro-French representative to Paris. They additionally searched for any signs of insult, any type of excuse to declare war.John Ferling says President Adams did not agree with the majority of Federalists.“Adams, native the an extremely beginning, seeks what he referred to as an honorable peace. The tried come look because that some sort of central position, centrist position, in between the radical conservatives on the right and also the radical liberals on the left.”Adams was afraid the the French revolution would ruin America. He believed the American economy and also government would certainly collapse if the nation became affiliated in europe struggle. So Adams do the efforts to improve relations through France through negotiations. At the same time, Adams strengthened America’s defenses. We will be ready, he said, if battle comes.The "X, Y, and Z Affair" threatens war through France...

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One incident, especially, carried France and also America close to war. It is known in American history books together the "X, Y and also Z Affair."President Adams had appointed a committee the ministers come negotiate with the French government. French officials preserved the ministers waiting for numerous weeks. While castle waited, the ministers had actually a visit from three Frenchmen -- later referred to as X, Y and also Z.X, Y and also Z told the American ministers that France would authorize an agreement if the United states did three things.It had actually to loan the French federal government $12 million. It had actually to apologize for anti-French declaration in a recent post from chairman Adams to the American Congress. And also it had actually to pay the French foreign minister $250,000.The American ministers were willing come pay. But they want to authorize the commitment first. The French international minister refused. An initial the money, climate the agreement.The Federalists lastly had the excuse they were looking for. France had actually insulted the united States. The only answer was war, lock said. Federalist newspapers included fuel to the fire by posting anti-French propaganda. In a couple of places, pro-war groups ended up being violent.The Republican Party could do little. Even Thomas Jefferson was helpless. He remained in Philadelphia, the resources of the United states at the time. However he had few friends there anymore.Congress quickly passed regulations to develop a permanent army and navy. It additionally approved new taxes come pay because that them.And the passed two brand-new laws by a small majority. This laws greatly increased the strength of the national government. Lock were known as the Alien and also Sedition Acts. Federalists claimed the regulations were crucial to protect national security. But, in effect, the Federalists supplied them to weaken the strength of the Republican Party.Under the alien Act, the president might accuse any foreigner life in the United claims of being a danger to national security. He could order that person out that the country.The act likewise increased the moment a foreigner had to wait to become a citizen, from five years come 14 years.Republicans to be furious. Many foreigners, as soon as they ended up being naturalized citizens, joined the Republican Party.Republicans said that the extraterrestrial Act violated the Constitution. They stated it provided the government an ext powers 보다 were declared in the Constitution. Federalists claimed the act to be constitutional. They stated the Constitution gave the government the right to defend the country versus foreign aggression.The various other law, the Sedition Act, barred the publishing of something that can incite public hostility against the government.Republicans said that this plot violated Americans" constitutional rights of cost-free speech and a cost-free press. Federalists, when again, protected it as vital for nationwide security.The Federalists tried to use the Sedition Act to quiet Republican critics of chairman Adams" administration. Around 25 human being were charged under the Sedition Act. These consisted of several top Republican newspapermen and a Republican member the Congress.Some that the guys were tried, found guilty, and also sent come prison. But other Republicans took their locations in the fight against the act. The Federalist setup to prevent criticism did not succeed.President Adams had signed the Alien and also Sedition Acts into law. He believed they were important to protect the United claims at a time once war with France was still possible. And his wife, Abigail, thought that passing the legislations would stop papers from criticizing him.“The one piece of advice that she offers that is unfortunate and is, in fact, catastrophic is the she really urges that to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts, which i do not care the best blunder that his presidency.”Joseph Ellis is a background professor in ~ Mt. Holyoke College and also the writer of a book around John and also Abigail Adams. He states Adams regretted happen the laws. In beforehand 1799, Adams got several reports that France was prepared to reopen negotiations on boosting relations. He instantly nominated a new minister to France. Federalist senators endangered to reject the nomination. In the end, Adams agreed come nominate a committee of three ministers. The Senate approved them.It was many months before the three guys went to France to negotiate the agreement. And also it was many an ext months before they completed your work. But they did so on September 30, 1800.After several years of bitterness political battle at home, chairman Adams lastly prevented war v France. Later on he wrote that there was one thing he would choose to be remembered for more than anything else. He provided himself the task of making peace with France, and also he succeeded.“We can’t say that about every American president. Yet we have the right to say it about John Adams.”Historian john Ferling states he to trust the United says would not have actually survived if the Americans had actually gone to war through France. Historian Joseph Ellis agrees.“I think that the lengthy term achievement of the Adams’ presidency is to maintain the coherence the a steady government and to watch that the revolution survives and also consolidates its energies and also continues on into the 19th century.”Eighteen hundreds was an additional presidential election year in the unified States. The Federalist Party showed up to it is in dying.It failed in its effort to force the country into war with France. And also it failure to quiet its doubters through the Alien and Sedition Acts. Party leaders knew the election would certainly be their last opportunity to save political power.The Republican Party had an ext popular support. It likewise had acquired an increasing number of seats in state legislatures and also in Congress. Party leader cutting board Jefferson was sure to be chosen president -- uneven the Federalists could find a method to change the electoral process.The election of 1800 will be our story next week.I"m Steve Ember, inviting friend to sign up with us again here on VOA learning English for The do of a Nation. American background in special English.