Parallel framework (also called parallelism) is when two or an ext items (for example, noun or clauses) are well balanced within a sentence or in between sentences; that is, they room treated equally grammatically and logically. Parallel structure helps ensure her reader correctly interprets her ideas since if you don’t present how two or much more items plainly connect, her reader might get confused. Because that example, the first sentence below illustrates a lack of parallelism v one list item, “racial,” being an adjective and also the remainder nouns. The second sentence is revised come be grammar parallel (all nouns):

Example: Not only do racial, gender, class, and also sexuality affect a student’s academic success, yet their sense of belonging also plays a huge role.Revision: Not just do race, gender, class, and sexuality impact a student’s scholastic success, however their feeling of belonging additionally plays a large role.

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This parallelism signals to the reader that every of this nouns same affects a student’s academic success. Her sentences need to be grammar parallel, as well as logically parallel, meaning your ideas must it is in logically ordered.

Click on every topic below to learn an ext about forming grammatically and also logically parallel sentences.


Parallel structure is required when you compose a list of 2 or much more items joined with a coordinating conjunction. Those items deserve to be any part of speech, consisting of phrases or clauses, as long as every item has actually the same grammatical kind and fits grammatically and logically in the sentence. Inspect the Commas and also Semicolons chapter to see how to punctuate lists.

Example (adjectives): This is ridiculous and pathetic.

Similarly, in a list with a correlative conjunction (phrases like either…or, neither…nor, or both…and), parallel framework is required.

Example (“either…or” through gerund phrases): The idea of one of two people staying in her hometown or leaving it for college can occasionally seem uncomfortable.Example (“neither…nor” through adjectives): My culture is neither the exact same as Salvadorian nor Guatemalan.Example (“both…and” v prepositional phrases): assistance from rock climbing friend is crucial, both on the rock and in day-to-day life.

Sometimes you have the right to reduce grammatically parallel forms, particularly phrases or clauses. Frequently the very first part the the expression or clause deserve to modify the aspects that follow it. Listed below is an example with verb phrases. The an initial sentence reflects two full verb phrases and also the 2nd shows a lessened form, with the “will be” editing and enhancing the 2nd verb.

Example (unreduced): If this is done at every level together as center school, high school, and college and to every student, there will be a greater chance that people will be going to college and will be gaining a degree.Example (reduced): If this is done at every level such as middle school, high school, and also college and to every student, there will be a higher chance that world will it is in going to college and getting a degree.

Here is an example with parallel clauses:

Example (unreduced): He valued education, and he questioned the unified States’ education system.Example (reduced): He valued education and questioned the joined States’ education system. (Note: The comma is no longer necessary in the reduced type because the 2nd subject was deleted. View the Commas and also Semicolons chapter for more information.)

In parallel structure, logic is important to overview your reader v your writing and also to ensure cohesion, or connections, between your ideas. In the instance below, the item in the list space all the same type (nouns), yet are not logically linked; “cross country” and “track and field” room sports but “class” is not.

Example that a grammatical however illogical parallel sentence: The sports that I appreciated the many in high school were cross country, track and also field, and also class.

Here’s exactly how we have the right to revise that sentence to make it an ext logically parallel and to do each the the nouns logically linked, the is, make them all sports.

See more: States And Capitals East Of The Mississippi River, State Capitals East Of The Mississippi River Quiz

Revision: The sports that I took pleasure in the many in high college were cross country, track and field, and badminton.

Parallel framework is likewise useful when you have to list points in stimulate of importance, in order of size, or in some other way that’s vital to convey her message. Here are two an ext examples of grammatically and also logically parallel sentences:

Example: If a climber drops from the rock, an additional person requirements to crouch, catch the one falling, and push the climber ~ above the mat to assure her/his/their safety. (This structure demonstrates step-by-step instructions.)Example: The journal report focuses on evaluating many aspects of the magazine — background, visual layout and also context—in stimulate to much better understand the writing and layout methods of a skilled publication. (This framework tells the reader in what order this topics will take place in the report.)
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last update: November 23, 2021