In computing, a article card is a plug-in user interface card that displays progress and also error password generated during power-on self-test (POST) the a computer. It is supplied to troubleshoot computer systems that carry out not begin up.

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Working principle

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At a minimum, if the CPU, BIOS, and also the I/O interface upon which the article card relies are all working, a write-up card have the right to be supplied to monitor the system"s Power-On self Test (POST), or to diagnose difficulties with it. The device sends two-hexadecimal-digit codes to a specified I/O port (usually 80 hex) during startup, some indicating a stage in the startup procedure, others identifying errors. The description for each code have to be looked increase in a table for the details BIOS. For example, because that the 1984 IBM PC/AT code 1D is approve when about to identify Memory Size above 1024K, and also code 2D in the event of 8042 keyboard Controller Failure, 105 system Error. If startup does not complete successfully, one of two people an error code, or the password of the critical operation, is available.

POST cards provide information also when a standard screen is not available, either because connecting a monitor is impractical, or due to the fact that the failure occurs before the video clip subsystem is operational.

Operation

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POST cards are placed into an expansion slot, and are obtainable in ISA (also sustaining EISA), PCI, parallel port, and also other variants (Mini PCIe, for laptop computers, is sustained by some cards, but with restrictions). A usual card for desktop computers has both one ISA interface on one edge, and also PCI on another; a map for laptop computer systems has both a miniPCI and a parallel harbor connector (plus USB to it is provided power).

Information top top the an interpretation of write-up codes for various BIOSes is needed to translate the codes. This is offered with cards, yet becomes date as later BIOSes are issued; up-to-date details is available on manufacturers" and also independent websites.

In enhancement to displaying numeric codes, plenty of cards monitor strength supply voltages, clock and oscillator signals, reset signal, and other parameters.

Usage scenarios

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POST cards because that PCs, while originally high-priced, expense from just a couple of US dollars upwards in the 21st century.

Some motherboards have a integrated display to diagnose hardware problems. Most also report article errors through audible beeps, if a pc speaker is attached. Together motherboards make write-up cards much less necessary.

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When these diagnostic cards were first introduced motherboards were expensive and also well precious troubleshooting and also repairing. By the so late twentieth century huge scale integration, mass production made motherboards cheap components. Motherboards were rarely repaired, but replaced; the main purpose the a post card is to identify that parts placed on the motherboard itself, rather than plugged-in video clip cards, RAM, etc. Room at fault.

See also

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References

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