CPU powers up and looks to the BIOS (Basic input output system), that is stored on a ROM chip, for instructions.

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BIOS runs POST (power on self test) testing itself, CMOS RAM, CPU, connecting devices like keyboard and mouse.
BIOS refers to CMOS RAM to work out where the Operating System (Like Windows) is. CMOS looks at the computer boot sequence to find the correct drive (Hard drive, Optical, USB thumb drive) to run the Operating system.
The BIOS checks the hard drive for the boot strap loader, located in the first sector of the hard drive.
The boot strap loader looks for the operating system on the hard drive and begins loading the operating system that is found, like Windows or macOS.
As the Operating system starts, BIOS copies its files (from the boot drive) into RAM and the OS takes control of booting the computer
The OS determines memory (RAM) available and loads hardware device drivers to control keyboard, mouse, etc.
The system is ready to use. The user can run applications to perform required tasks. Applications are copied from the boot drive into RAM for faster operation.
A defined sequence of steps that starts up the computer from turning on the power button to loading the Operating system into RAM.
Forcing a PC to turn on/off without letting the OS properly shutting down. Can cause lost of files and the system to get corrupt.

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A battery powered chip, located on a motherboard, that stores information which can be changed. This information ranges from the system time and date, the boot device sequence to system hardware settings for your computer.

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