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Abadin H, Ashizawa A, Stevens YW, et al. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta (GA): firm for toxic Substances and an illness Registry (US); 2007 Aug.
4.1. Chemical IDENTITY
Lead is a naturally emerging element and also is a member of team 14 (IVA) that the routine table. Natural lead is a mixture of four stable isotopes, 208Pb (51–53%), 206Pb (23.5– −27%), 207Pb (20.5–23%), and 204Pb (1.35–1.5%). Command isotopes are the stable degeneration product that three normally radioactive elements: 206Pb from uranium, 207Pb from actinium, and also 208Pb native thorium.
Lead is not a particularly abundant element, yet its ore deposits room readily accessible and widely dispersed throughout the world. The properties, such together corrosion resistance, density, and low melting point, make it a familiar metal in pipes, solder, weights, and storage batteries. The chemistry identities that lead and also several that its compounds are provided in Table 4-1.
4.2. PHYSICAL and also CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Lead exists in three oxidation states: Pb(0), the metal; Pb(II); and also Pb(IV). In the environment, lead primarily exists as Pb(II). Pb(IV) is only developed under exceptionally oxidizing conditions and inorganic Pb(IV) compounds space not discovered under ordinary ecological conditions. If organolead(II) compounds are known, organolead chemistry is conquered by the tetravalent (+4) oxidation state. Metallic lead, Pb(0) exist in nature, but its occurrence is rare.
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Lead’s comprehensive use is largely due to its short melting point and fantastic corrosion resistance in the environment. When exposed to air and also water, films of lead sulfate, command oxides, and lead carbonates room formed; these films act together a protective obstacle that slows or halts corrosion the the underlying metal. Lead is amphoteric, creating plumbous and also plumbic salt in acid and also plumbites and plumbates in alkali. Lead is positioned slightly above hydrogen in the electromotive collection and therefore should theoretically replace hydrogen in acids. However, the potential distinction is little and the high hydrogen overvoltage avoids replacement (King and Ramachandran 1995; Sutherland and Milner 1990).
Data on the physical and chemical properties of lead and several of its compounds are provided in Table 4-2