Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton theory of, proton concept of acids and bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, also called proton concept of acids and also bases, a theory, introduced individually in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist thomas Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that have the right to transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear bit with a unit positive electrical charge; it is represented by the symbol H+ because it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of 3 theories the acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and Lewis theory.

follow to the Brønsted-Lowry scheme a substance can duty as an acid just in the existence of a base; similarly, a problem can duty as a base just in the existence of one acid. Furthermore, when an acidic substance loses a proton, it creates a base, referred to as the conjugate base of one acid, and also when a straightforward substance benefit a proton, it develops an acid referred to as the conjugate mountain of a base. Thus, the reaction in between an acidic substance, such as hydrochloric acid, and a basic substance, such as ammonia, might be stood for by the equation:

In order to settle the various difficulties in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and also bases, a new, an ext generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the acid conjugate come the base ammonia, and also the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate to hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry concept enlarges the number of compounds taken into consideration to it is in acids and also bases to incorporate not just the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and the alkali metal hydroxides) however also details atoms and also molecules with optimistic and negative electrical dues (cations and also anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and also some hydrated metal cations are taken into consideration acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ion are thought about bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia piersonforcongress.comThis post was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen.

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