Author: Marko Teittinen

The person visual system interprets depth in sensed pictures using bothphysiological and also psychological cues. Part physiological cues requireboth eye to be open up (binocular), rather are easily accessible also whenlooking at photos with only one open eye (monocular). Allpsychological cues are monocular. In the real civilization the human visualsystem automatically uses all available depth cues come determinedistances between objects. To have actually all this depth cues obtainable ina VR mechanism some type of a stereo screen is compelled to takeadvantage that the binocular depth cues. Monocular depth cues have the right to beused additionally without stereotype display.The physiological depth cues space accommodation, convergence,binocular parallax, and monocular activity parallax. Convergenceand binocular parallax space the only binocular depth cues, all othersare monocular. The psychological depth cues room retinal picture size,linear perspective, texture gradient, overlapping, aerialperspective, and also shades and also shadows.

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Accommodation is the tension of the muscle that transforms the focallength the the lens that eye. Therefore it brings into emphasis objects atdifferent distances. This depth cue is fairly weak, and it iseffective only at brief viewing ranges (less than 2 meters) andwith other cues.


When watching an item close come us, our eyes point slightly inward.This distinction in the direction that the eye is referred to as convergence.This depth cue is effective only on quick distances (less 보다 10meters).

Binocular Parallax

As ours eyes check out the people from slightly different locations, theimages sensed by the eyes space slightly different. This difference inthe sensed images is dubbed binocular parallax. Human being visual systemis really sensitive to these differences, and binocular parallax is themost essential depth cue for tool viewing distances. The sense ofdepth have the right to be completed using binocular parallax even if all various other depthcues space removed.

Monocular motion Parallax

If we close one of our eyes, we can perceive depth by moving our head.This happens because human intuitive system have the right to extract depth informationin two comparable images sensed after every other, in the same way it cancombine two pictures from different eyes.

Retinal picture Size

When the real size the the object is known, our mind compares thesensed dimension of the object to this real size, and thus acquiresinformation about the distance of the object.

Linear Perspective

When looking down a straight level road we see the parallel sides ofthe road satisfy in the horizon. This result is frequently visible in photosand the is an important depth cue. The is called linear perspective.

Texture Gradient

The closer we are to things the more detail we can see that itssurface texture. For this reason objects through smooth textures space usuallyinterpreted being farther away. This is especially true if thesurface structure spans all the street from near to far.


When objects block each various other out of our sight, we know that theobject that blocks the other one is closer come us. The object whoseoutline sample looks more constant is felt come lie closer.

Aerial Perspective

The mountains in the horizon look always slightly bluish or hazy. Thereason for this are tiny water and also dust particles in the wait betweenthe eye and also the mountains. The furthermore the mountains, the hazier theylook.

Shades and Shadows

When we recognize the location of a light source and view objects castingshadows on other objects, we learn that the thing shadowing the otheris closer come the light source. As most illumination come downward wetend to solve ambiguities making use of this information. The threedimensional looking computer user interfaces space a nice example onthis. Also, shining objects seem to be closer come the observer thandark ones.

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Further Information

Okoshi, T., Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques, scholastic Press, NewYork, 1976.
Human Interface modern technology Laboratory