Interprocess communication is a capability of Operating Systems that enables a procedure to communicate with any other process. IPC permits one applications to control an additional application and share the matching data there is no interfering v one another.

You are watching: What are the two models of interprocess communication

Lets read more to learn much more about interprocess communication, species of processes, different models of IPC, etc.

Interprocess Communication

Interprocess interaction (IPC) is an capacity to host by an Operating System that allows one process to connect with one more process. The processes deserve to be running on the same computer system or on various computers associated through a network.

Interprocess communication allows one applications to control an additional application, and also for plenty of applications come share the corresponding data without interfering through one another. IPC is compelled in every multiprogramming systems.

But it is not normally supported by a single procedure Operating Systems such as DOS. The OS/2 and MS-Windows assistance an interprocess interaction mechanism dubbed Dynamic Data Exchange.

Interprocess communication is a mechanism that is offered by the procedures to exchange data and also information. Numerous processes may be executing at the exact same time in the Operating System. These processes can be separated into two types known together independent processes and also cooperating processes.

Types of Processes

Following space the important species of processes

Independent Processes Cooperating Processes

Independent Processes

A process that cannot impact or be impacted by any type of other procedure executing in the system is called an independent process. One independent process does no share data with any other process.

Cooperating Processes

A process that can affect or be affected by any type of other process executing in the mechanism is referred to as a cooperating process. A cooperating procedure shares data with other processes.

Advantages of procedure Cooperation

Different advantages of procedure cooperation are as follows:

Information Sharing

Process teamwork is necessary because many users may need to access the same details such together a shared file etc. An atmosphere must be noted where such information have the right to be accessed by multiple users concurrently.

Computation Speedup

One task can be split into multiple work to execute it faster. All separated subtasks deserve to be executed simultaneously to rate up the computation. In this case, this subtasks may be forced to cooperate v each other as castle are part of the same task.


Process participation is an extremely important if the system is come be constructed in the modular style. The modular device divides the features into separate processes or threads.


Process participation provides convenience if a solitary user is functioning on multiple jobs at the very same time. It ensures that any conflicts space avoided in the device if the user is making use of the exact same data in multiple tasks.

Models that Interprocess Communication

There space two basic models of interprocess communication:

Shared memory Model Message pass Model

Shared storage Model

The mutual memory model establishes a region of memory that is mutual by cooperating processes. The procedures exchange info by reading and also writing data come the common region. This design is faster than a message-passing model and also provides best speed and convenience.

interprocess communication

It is generally implemented using mechanism calls and also is more time-consuming. The message-passing model is typically valuable in a distributed environment. The processes may reside on various computers associated by a network.

The conversation program offered on the internet is an example of the article passing system. Individuals can interact by exchanging messages v one another. A message-passing model provides at the very least two operations:

Send (message)

Receive (message)

Two processes can interact with each various other by sending and receiving messages. This interaction can take place by establishing a interaction link in between these processes.

Mechanisms for Interprocess Communication

Following are the essential mechanisms for interprocess communication:


The procedures that want to connect must describe each other using any type of method. It have the right to be excellent using direct or indirect communication.

Direct Communication

In straight communication, each procedure that desires to communicate must name the sender or recipient of the communication. There space two schemes the direct communication known together symmetric communication and asymmetric communication.

The symmetric communication requires that both the sender and also receiver procedure must surname each various other to communicate. In asymmetric communication, only the sender process must name the recipient. The recipient process does not must name the sender process.

Send () and Receive () attributes in symmetric interaction are characterized as follows:

Send (P, msg) it is provided to send the blog post msg come the procedure P.

Receive (Q, msg) it is provided to obtain the article msg through the procedure Q.

Send () and also Receive () features in asymmetric interaction are defined as follows:

Send (P, msg) that is used to send the message msg come the process P.

Receive (id, msg) that is supplied to receive article msg from any type of process. The variable id describes the name of the process with i beg your pardon the communication has taken place.

The nature of the interaction link in direct interaction are as follows:

A connect is instantly established in between the pair of processes that want to communicate. The procedures only require to understand the identity of every other. A connect is established in between exactly two processes. Only one link is established in between one pair the processes.In-Direct Communication

In-indirect communication, the blog post is sent and received from mailboxes or ports. A mailbox is an item used by the processes to store and remove messages. Every mailbox has a unique identification. Two procedures can communicate using this method only if they have actually a mutual mailbox.

A mailbox deserve to be owned by a processor or the Operating System. If the mailbox is owned by a process then it disappears as soon as that process is terminated.

The Operating device must carry out a system for the following:

produce a new mailbox Send and receive messages via mailbox Delete a mailbox

Send () and Receive () features in asymmetric communication are as follows:

Send (M, msg) that is offered to send the message msg to the mailbox M.

Receive (M, msg) the is provided to obtain the post msg from the mailbox M.

The properties of a communication link in indirect communication are as follows:

A link is established in between a pair the processes just if both have a mutual mailbox. A attach may be connected with more than 2 processes. Every pair of interacting processes may have actually a variety of links with each link referring come one mailbox.

Problems in Mailbox System

There space some difficulties with the mailbox mechanism that happen when an ext than two processes share a mailbox. Intend that procedure 1 sends out a message to a mailbox the is common with procedure 2 and procedure 3. Process 2 and process 3 both shot to receive the message. That will acquire it?

Some remedies to the above problem are :

To permit a link to be developed with at most two processes  Allow only one procedure at a time to execute a receive operation To allow the device to arbitrarily choose the receiver. The sender must be notified who got the message.


The communication between different procedures takes location through calls to send() and also receive () functions. Various design options to implement each function include message passing by prevent or unblocking. These are likewise known as synchronous or asynchronous.

Blocking Send: the sending process is blocked until the message is got by the receiving procedure or through the mailbox.

Non-blocking Send: the sending process sends the message and also resumes options.

Blocking Receive: the receiver process blocks until a message is available.

Non-Blocking Receiver: the receiver procedure retrieves either a valid article or a null.


The post exchanged via any type of interaction resides in a short-lived queue. This queues deserve to be imposed in the complying with ways:

Zero Capacity

The queue has actually a maximum length of zero. The attach cannot have any kind of messages waiting in it. The sender have to wait until the recipient receives the message. The 2 processes should be synchronized because that the transfer of a message. The zero-capacity attach is referred to as a message-passing device without buffering.

Bounded Capacity

The queue has actually a finite length of n. It deserve to store n variety of messages in it. A blog post is save in the queue if it is no full and also the sender proceeds the execution without any kind of wait. The sender need to block until there is a an are available in the queue.

See more: 2005 Dodge Ram 1500 Transmission Fluid Capacity Question, Solved: Transmission Fluid Capacity

Unbounded Capacity

The queue size is infinite and also any variety of messages deserve to wait in it. The sender is never ever blocked. That is why the sender is never ever delayed.