Presentation ~ above theme: "TEN actions TO advancing COLLEGE reading SKILLS"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Five: relationship I•Authors usage two common methods to present connections, or relationships, between ideas. •These two techniques are transitions and also patterns that organization. See page 181 in textbook.

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3 Two common types of relationships are • relationship that involve enhancement • relationship that indicate time See page 181 in textbook.

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4 TRANSITIONS i beg your pardon item below is easier to read and understand?A.The weather in ~ the phibìc Pole is truly extreme. The typical winter temperature is an ext than 20 degrees listed below zero. B.The weather in ~ the north Pole is truly extreme. First of all, the median winter temperature is much more than 20 degrees listed below zero. View pages 181 and also 182 in textbook. ANSWER: B The next slide describes the answer.

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5 TRANSITIONS i m sorry item listed below is easier to read and also understand?A.The weather in ~ the north Pole is important extreme. The mean winter temperature is an ext than 20 degrees below zero. B.The weather at the phibìc Pole is important extreme. Very first of all, the typical winter temperature is more than 20 degrees below zero. See pages 181 and 182 in textbook. ANSWER: B The following slide describes the answer. The words first of every in the second item do it clear the the writer to plan on explaining 2 or an ext ways the weather is extreme. This makes the 2nd item much easier to understand.

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6 TRANSITIONS Transitions space words or unit volume (like first of all ) that present relationships between ideas. View pages 181 and 182 in textbook.

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7 TRANSITIONS Transitions deserve to be seen as “bridge” words, delivering the reader across from one idea to the next: See web page 182 in textbook.

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8 TRANSITIONS Two major types the transitions are words the show addition and words that display time. See page 182 in textbook.

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9 TRANSITIONS indigenous That show AdditionWhich item listed below is easier to read and understand? A.A virus cannot relocate or grow. It have the right to reproduce only inside a cell of one more organism. B.A virus cannot move or grow. Furthermore, it deserve to reproduce only inside a cell of another organism. See page 182 in textbook. ANSWER: B The following slide defines the answer.

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10 TRANSITIONS native That present AdditionWhich item below is less complicated to read and also understand? A.A virus cannot move or grow. It can reproduce just inside a cabinet of one more organism. B.A virus cannot move or grow. Furthermore, it have the right to reproduce only inside a cabinet of one more organism. See web page 182 in textbook. The word additionally in the second item helps make the relationship between the 2 sentences clear. The author is listing two different features of a virus. Furthermore is an addition word.

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11 TRANSITIONS indigenous That display AdditionSee pages 182 and also 183 in textbook. “I can’t marry you, Henry. An initial of all, you’re also tall because that me. In addition, ns don’t choose pink.” In this cartoon, the words In addition introduce a 2nd reason why Henry’s proposal is being rejected.

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12 TRANSITIONS native That display AdditionAddition native signal included ideas. These words tell girlfriend a writer is presenting one or more ideas that proceed along the same line of assumed as a previous idea. Here are some common enhancement words: addition Words See page 183 in textbook. One to start with alsofurther first (of all)for one thingin addition furthermore second(ly)othernextlast (of all) third(ly)anothermoreoverfinal(ly)

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13 TRANSITIONS words That display AdditionIn the examples below, an alert how the addition words introduce ideas that add to what has currently been said. •We interact to exchange information. We additionally communicate to construct relationships. •Tiger sharks eat fish, squid, sea turtles, seals, and smaller sharks. Moreover, they have been well-known to swallow car license plates and also gasoline cans. See web page 183 in textbook.

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14 TRANSITIONS words That display TimeWhich item below is simpler to read and understand? A.I fill in the answers come the test questions I’m certain I know. I occupational on the remainder of the exam. B.First i fill in the answers come the test inquiries I’m sure I know. Climate I work-related on the rest of the exam. See web page 184 in textbook. ANSWER: B The next slide describes the answer.

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15 TRANSITIONS words That display TimeWhich item listed below is simpler to read and understand? A.I to fill in the answers to the test concerns I’m sure I know. I work on the remainder of the exam. B.First ns fill in the answers to the test questions I’m certain I know. Climate I work on the rest of the exam. See web page 184 in textbook. The words very first and then in the 2nd item clear up the relationship between the sentences. The author begins working on the remainder of the exam after comment the concerns that the or she is sure about. First, then, and words favor them are time words.

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16 TRANSITIONS native That present Time“First Goldilocks ate Papa Bear’s porridge. Next she ate Momma Bear’s porridge. Ultimately she ate infant Bear’s porridge. Then her cholesterol to reduce 14 points!” See page 185 in textbook. In this cartoon, the moment words First, Next, Finally, and Then suggest when each of the occasions happened in the story.

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17 TRANSITIONS native That display TimeTime words phone call us once something taken place in relationship to when something else happened. Here are some typical time words: Time Words prior to immediatelywhenuntil previouslynext wheneveroften very first (of all)then whilefrequently second(ly)followingduring at some point third(ly)lateras (soon as)final(ly) nowafterbylast (of all) Note: extr ways of mirroring time are days (“In ,” “Throughout the 20th century. . . ,” “By ”) and other time recommendations (“Within a week. . . ,” “by the finish of the month. . . ,” “in 2 years. . .”). See page 185 in textbook.

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18 TRANSITIONS words That display Time In the instances below, an alert how the time words display us once something take away place. •During the last ice age, there were huge icebergs in the ocean as far south together Mexico. •I cross the street whenever I see someone coming whose surname I’ve forgotten. See page 185 in textbook.

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19 PATTERNS of ORGANIZATIONJust together transitions show relationships in between ideas in sentences, patterns of organization present the relationships between supporting details in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. See page 187 in textbook.

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20 PATTERNS that ORGANIZATIONTwo significant patterns of company are • The list of items sample (Addition words are often used in this sample of organization.) • the moment order sample (Time native are regularly used in this sample of organization.) See page 187 in textbook.

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21 PATTERNS that ORGANIZATIONThe perform of item Pattern list of items items 1 items 2 item 3 •A list of item is a collection of reasons, examples, or various other details that assistance an idea. •The items have no time order, however are provided in every little thing order the author prefers. See page 187 in textbook.

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22 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe perform of items Pattern see if you have the right to arrange the adhering to sentences in an bespeak that renders sense. I beg your pardon sentence need to come first? Second? Third? Last? use the enhancement words to guide you. A.Another is the mythical Atlas, who was pictured holding increase the heavens in an early collection of maps, and also ever since, atlas has meant any kind of book the maps. B.The names of plenty of people, real and fictional, have become permanent components of the English language. C.A third name-turned-word is the of john Montagu, the Earl of Sandwich, who acquired the idea of putting a item of meat in between two slices of bread; the an outcome was the sandwich that bears his name. D. One is Joseph Guillotin, a physician, who created a maker for cutting off condemned prisoners’ heads—the guillotine. Check out pages 187 and 188 in textbook. ANSWER: an initial - B 2nd - D third - A fourth - C The following slide reflects the sentence in order.

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23 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe perform of Items pattern The surname of many people, real and also fictional, have become permanent parts of the English language. One is Joseph Guillotin, a physician, who created a device for cutting off condemned prisoners’ heads—the guillotine. One more is the mythical Atlas, that was pictured holding increase the heavens in an early collection the maps, and also ever since, atlas has meant any type of book of maps. A third name-turned-word is the of john Montagu, the Earl that Sandwich, who acquired the idea of placing a item of meat in between two slices the bread; the an outcome was the sandwich that bears his name. Watch pages 187 and also 188 in textbook. The paragraph starts with the key idea: the name of numerous people, real and fictional, have become permanent parts of the English language. The following three sentence list human being whose surname have end up being parts the the language. Each one is introduced with an enhancement transition.

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24 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe perform of Items sample What major details are essential to finish the overview of this paragraph? The addition words are shown in blue to aid you. Self-disclosure is revealing information around oneself. Meaningful self-disclosure contains three vital elements. Very first of all, it have to be excellent on purpose. If you accidentally cite to a friend the you’re thinking about quitting a job, that is no self-disclosure. Second, the info must it is in significant. Informing trivial facts, opinions, or feelings—that you prefer fudge, because that example—hardly counts as disclosure. The 3rd requirement is the the details being common is private. Yes nothing noteworthy around telling others that you room depressed or happy if they currently know that. See web page 189 in textbook. ANSWER: 1. Excellent on purpose 2. Far-reaching 3. Private The next slide mirrors the answer. Main idea: meaningful self-disclosure consists of three important elements. 1. 2. 3.

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25 PATTERNS that ORGANIZATIONThe list of items Pattern addition words lead you to the major details the author has listed. Self-disclosure is revealing information around oneself. Systematic self-disclosure contains three necessary elements. An initial of all, it need to be done on purpose. If girlfriend accidentally cite to a friend the you’re thinking around quitting a job, that is not self-disclosure. Second, the info must be significant. Telling trivial facts, opinions, or feelings—that you prefer fudge, because that example—hardly counts together disclosure. The third requirement is that the info being mutual is private. There’s nothing noteworthy around telling others the you space depressed or happy if they currently know that. See page 189 in textbook. Key idea: systematic self-disclosure consists of three necessary elements. 1. Excellent on purpose 2. Far-reaching 3. Private note the perform words three important facets in the main idea. These words present the significant details.

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26 PATTERNS of ORGANIZATIONThe Time order Pattern watch if you can arrange the complying with sentences in logical order. I beg your pardon sentence need to come first? Second? Last? Use the time words as a guide. A.The water then begins to expand and rise, to be changed by cold water indigenous the upper regions of the pot. B.In the convection process, water native the bottom of a heating pot begins to move faster. C.Eventually, ~ this heated water gets to the top, it cools off and also sinks, come be replaced by newly heated water from the bottom. Check out pages 191 and also 192 in textbook. ANSWER: very first - B second - A 3rd - C The following slide shows the sentences in order.

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27 PATTERNS of ORGANIZATIONThe Time bespeak Pattern here is the reasonable order because that the sentence on the last screen. In the convection process, water native the bottom the a heater pot begins to move faster. The water then begins to expand and rise, to be changed by cold water indigenous the upper regions of the pot. Eventually, ~ this cook water it s okay to the top, it cools off and also sinks, to be replaced by freshly heated water native the bottom. Check out pages 191 and 192 in textbook. •In time order, the details space presented in the order in which lock happen. •Notice that supporting details are presented by time words.

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28 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe Time order Pattern among the most typical kinds of time stimulate is a collection of events or stages. Time Order: occasions Time Order: Stages occasion 1 occasion 2 occasion 3 phase 1 phase 2 stage 3 See web page 192 in textbook.

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29 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe Time order Pattern: series of occasions or step What 4 stages of sleep are necessary to finish the synopsis of this paragraph? the moment words are displayed in blue to assist you. The study of volunteer in sleep laboratories has led researchers to believe that human beings go with four different stages the sleep in a common night’s rest. After falling asleep, world enter phase 1 sleep, likewise called “light sleep” or “REM” (rapid eye movement) sleep. Throughout this phase the sleeper’s mind waves space irregular, and the human is easily awakened. The next duration of sleep, stage 2 sleep, is marked by to explode of fast brain-wave activity called “spindles.” Then, throughout stage 3 sleep, the spindles disappear, and mind waves become long and slow. Last, the deepest level of sleep, during which the sleeper is hardest to awaken, occurs during stage 4 sleep. Incredibly slow mind waves well-known as delta waves are existing during this deep-sleep phase. Watch pages 192 and also 193 in textbook. ANSWER: 1.Stage 1—light or REM sleep, irregular mind waves; conveniently awakened. 2.Stage 2—bursts of rapid brain-wave task called “spindles.” 3.Stage 3—spindles disappear; brain waves come to be long and short. 4.Stage 4—deepest level; an extremely slow brain waves dubbed delta waves; more daunting to awaken The next slide reflects the answers. Key idea: Researchers believe that people go through four various stages of sleep in a normal night’s rest. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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30 PATTERNS of ORGANIZATIONThe Time stimulate Pattern: series of events or stages Time words lead you come the major details the author has listed. The study of volunteers in sleep laboratories has actually led researchers to think that people go v four various stages that sleep in a normal night’s rest. After ~ falling asleep, civilization enter stage 1 sleep, additionally called “light sleep” or “REM” (rapid eye movement) sleep. Throughout this phase the sleeper’s brain waves room irregular, and also the human being is quickly awakened. The next period of sleep, stage 2 sleep, is significant by explode of quick brain-wave activity called “spindles.” Then, throughout stage 3 sleep, the spindles disappear, and brain waves end up being long and slow. Last, the deepest level that sleep, throughout which the sleeper is hardest come awaken, occurs during stage 4 sleep. Very slow brain waves recognized as delta tide are present during this deep-sleep phase. View pages 192 and also 193 in textbook. Main idea: Researchers think that human beings go through four various stages the sleep in a common night’s rest. 1.Stage 1—light or REM sleep, irregular brain waves; quickly awakened. 2.Stage 2—bursts of quick brain-wave task called “spindles.” 3.Stage 3—spindles disappear; mind waves become long and also short. 4.Stage 4—deepest level; very slow mind waves called delta waves; more difficult to awaken

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31 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe Time stimulate Pattern an additional common sort of time order is a collection of measures (directions how to perform something). Time Order: actions Step 1 action 2 step 3 see pages 195 come 196 in textbook.

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32 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe Time order Pattern: collection of measures What procedures are essential to complete the outline of this paragraph? the time words are in blue to aid you. If you mention the word PROM come people, they room going to think the a high-school rite of passage. In fact, PROM is also the name of a proven research method. The first step in this system is to preview a analysis assignment. Keep in mind the title and also read the first and last paragraphs; also look quickly at headings and also subheads and anything in boldface or italic. Next, check out a an option straight through while noting off important principles such as definitions, examples, and lists of items. The 3rd step is come organize the product you’ve review by taking examine notes on it. Obtain all the important concepts down on document in overview form, relating one idea to one more as lot as possible. Last of all, memorize the research notes that you will must remember for tests. Do this by writing crucial words in the margins of her study overview and transforming those words right into questions. Not all learning requires memorization, yet some of that does, so nothing hesitate to commit to storage anything you might need because that a test. See pages 196 and also 197 in textbook. ANSWERS: 1.Preview a analysis assignment. 2.Read the an option straight through, noting off crucial ideas. 3.Organize the product you’ve check out by taking research notes on it. Memorize the examine notes by turning vital words right into questions. The following slide shows the answers. Key idea: PROM is a proven research method. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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33 PATTERNS the ORGANIZATIONThe Time order Pattern: series of actions Time words lead you to the major details the writer has listed. If you point out the word PROM come people, they are going come think of a high-school rite that passage. In fact, PROM is also the name of a proven research method. The first step in this device is come preview a analysis assignment. Keep in mind the title and read the first and last paragraphs; additionally look quickly at headings and also subheads and also anything in boldface or italic. Next, check out a choice straight with while noting off important principles such together definitions, examples, and lists of items. The third step is come organize the material you’ve check out by taking study notes on it. Acquire all the important concepts down on file in overview form, relating one idea to an additional as lot as possible. Critical of all, memorize the research notes the you will have to remember for tests. Do this through writing key words in the spare part of your study synopsis and transforming those words right into questions. No all learning involves memorization, yet some of it does, so nothing hesitate to commit to memory anything you could need for a test. View pages 196 and also 197 in textbook. Key idea: PROM is a proven study method. 1.Preview a reading assignment. 2.Read the an option straight through, noting off necessary ideas. 3.Organize the product you’ve check out by taking study notes ~ above it. 4.Memorize the examine notes by turning key words right into questions.

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34 between supporting details in paragraphs and longer piece of writing. CHAPTER evaluation In this chapter, you learned just how authors use transitions and also patterns of organization to do their concepts clear. Simply as transitions present relationships between ideas in sentences, patterns of organization present relationships between supporting details in paragraphs and longer piece of writing. You likewise learned two typical kinds of relationship that authors usage to do their principles clear: •Addition relationships — writer often present a perform or series of reasons, examples, or various other details that assistance an idea. The items have actually no time order, however are noted in everything order the author prefers. — change words that signal such addition relationships encompass for one thing, second, also, in addition, and finally. •Time relationship — writer usually comment on a series of events or measures in the stimulate in which lock happen, causing a time order. — shift words the signal together time relationships include first, next, then, after, and last. See page 200 in textbook.


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The following chapter—Chapter 6—will help you discover three other crucial kinds the relationships: definition-example, to compare and/or contrast, and cause-effect.

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