Density is characterized as mass per unit volume. Fixed is a property and the SI unit for thickness is <kg/m3>.

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Density can be express as

ρ = m / V = 1 /ν <1>

whereρ = density , m = mass , V = volume , ν = certain volume ,

The royal (U.S.) devices for density areslugs/ft3 yet pound-mass every cubic foot - lbm/ft3 - is regularly used. Note that there is a difference in between pound-force (lbf) and also pound-mass (lbm). Slugs deserve to be multiplied with 32.2 because that a stormy value in pound-mass (lbm).

1 slug = 32.174 lbm = 14.594 kg 1 kg = 2.2046 lbm = 6.8521x10-2 slugs density of water: 1000 kg/m3, 1.938 slugs/ft3

See likewise Unit converter - mass and Unit converter - density

On atomic level - particles are packed tighter within a substance with greater density. Thickness is a physical residential or commercial property - continuous at a given temperature and pressure - and also may be useful for to know of substances.

Below top top this page: particular gravity (relative density), certain gravity for gases, specific weight, calculation examples

Se also: Densities because that some common materials Water - Density, certain Weight and also Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation with temperature at 1, 68 and 680 atm, SI and Imperial units Air - Density, details Weight and Thermal Expantion Coefficient - variation with temperature and pressure, SI and Imperial units just how to measure thickness of liquid petroleum products

Example 1: thickness of a Golf ball instance 2: Using density to recognize a Material example 3: density to calculation Volume Mass

Specific gravity (Relative Density) - SG - is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio the the density of a substance to the thickness of water - in ~ a specified temperature and also can it is in expressed as

SG = ρsubstance / ρH2O <2>

whereSG = certain Gravity that the substanceρsubstance = density of the liquid or problem ρH2O = thickness of water - normally at temperature 4 oC

It is usual to usage the density of water at 4 oC (39oF) together a reference since water in ~ this point has its highest thickness of 1000 kg/m3 or 1.940slugs/ft3.

Since particular Gravity - SG - is dimensionless, it has actually the very same value in the SI system and also the imperial English device (BG). SG that a fluid has the same numerical worth as its thickness expressed in g/mL or Mg/m3. Water is normally additionally used as reference as soon as calculating the certain gravity because that solids.

See likewise Thermophysical properties of Water - Density, freeze temperature, boiling temperature, Latent warmth of melting, Latent warmth of evaporation, crucial temperature ...

example 4: specific Gravity of Iron specific Gravity because that some usual Materials SubstanceSpecific Gravity- SG -
Acetylene 0.0017
Air, dry 0.0013
Alcohol 0.82
Aluminum 2.72
Brass 8.48
Cadmium 8.57
Chromium 7.03
Copper 8.79
Carbon dioxide 0.00198
Carbon monoxide 0.00126
Cast iron 7.20
Hydrogen 0.00009
Lead 11.35
Mercury 13.59
Nickel 8.73
Nitrogen 0.00125
Nylon 1.12
Oxygen 0.00143
Paraffin 0.80
Petrol 0.72
PVC 1.36
Rubber 0.96
Steel 7.82
Tin 7.28
Zinc 7.12
Water (4oC) 1.00
Water, sea 1.027
Wood, Oak 0.77

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Specific heaviness of gases is typically calculated with recommendation to waiting - and defined together the ratio of the thickness of the gas come the thickness of the air - at a specified temperature and also pressure.

The certain Gravity deserve to be calculated together

SG = ρgas / ρair <3>

whereSG= particular gravity the gasρgas= density of gas ρair= thickness of air (normally in ~ NTP - 1.204 )

Molecular weights deserve to be supplied to calculate details Gravity if the densities of the gas and also the air are evaluated at the same pressure and also temperature.

See also Thermophysical properties of air - density, viscosity, critical temperature and also pressure, triple point, enthalpi and entropi, heat conductivity and also diffusicity,......

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Specific Weight is defined as weight per unit volume. Weight is a force. The SI unit for certain weight is . The royal unit is .

Specific weight (or force per unit volume) can be to express as

γ = ρ ag <4>

whereγ = particular weight (N/m3>, ρ = thickness , ag = acceleration of heaviness (9.807 , 32.174 under typical conditions)

Example 5: certain Weight of Water

specific Weight because that Some common Materials
ProductSpecific load - γ -Imperial systems (lb/ft3)SI systems (kN/m3)
Aluminum 172 27
Brass 540 84.5
Carbon tetrachloride 99.4 15.6
Copper 570 89
Ethyl Alcohol 49.3 7.74
Gasoline 42.5 6.67
Glycerin 78.6 12.4
Kerosene 50 7.9
Mercury 847 133.7
SAE 20 engine Oil 57 8.95
Seawater 63.9 10.03
Stainless Steel 499 - 512 78 - 80
Water 62.4 9.81
Wrought Iron 474 - 499 74 - 78

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Example 1: density of a Golf ball

A golf ball has actually a diameter of 42 mm and a mass of 45 g. The volume of the golf ball can be calculate as

V = (4/3) π (42 * 0.001 /2)3 = 3.8 10-5

The thickness of the golf ball can then it is in calculated as

ρ = 45 * 0.001 / 3.8 10-5 = 1184

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Example 2: Using thickness to identify a Material

An unknown liquid substance has actually a fixed of 18.5 g and also occupies a volume that 23.4 ml (milliliter).

The density of the substance deserve to be calculated as

ρ = (18.5 /1000 ) / (23.4 /(1000 * 1000))

= 18.5 10-3 /23.4 10-6 = 790

If us look increase the densities the some typical liquids we discover that ethyl alcohol - or ethanol - has a thickness of 789 kg/m3. The liquid may be ethyl alcohol!

Example 3: thickness to calculation Volume Mass

The density of titanium is 4507 kg/m3. The mass of 0.17 m3 volume titanium have the right to be calculation as

m = 0.17 * 4507 = 766.2

Note! - be conscious that there is a difference between "bulk density" and also actual "solid or product density". This might not be clean in the summary of products. Always double check worths with various other sources before important calculations.

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Example 4: specific Gravity of Iron

The thickness of steel is 7850 kg/m3. The certain gravity the iron concerned water with density 1000 kg/m3 is

SG(iron) = 7850 / 1000 = 7.85

Example 5: particular Weight the Water

The thickness of water is 1000 kg/m3 at 4 °C (39 °F).

The particular weight in SI units is

γ = 1000 * 9.81 = 9810 = 9.81

The thickness of water is 1.940 slugs/ft3 in ~ 39 °F (4 °C).

The details weight in royal units is

γ = 1.940 * 32.174 = 62.4

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Engineering ToolBox, (2003). Density vs. Details Weight and certain Gravity. accessible at: .

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