This is an excerpt from Endurance Sports Nutrition-3rd Edition by Suzanne Girard Eberle.

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The Body"s Fuel Sources

Our ability to run, bicycle, ski, swim, and row hinges on the capacity of the body to extract energy from ingested food. As potential fuel sources, the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the foods that you eat follow different metabolic paths in the body, but they all ultimately yield water, carbon dioxide, and a chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Think of ATP molecules as high-energy compounds or batteries that store energy. Anytime you need energy—to breathe, to tie your shoes, or to cycle 100 miles (160 km)—your body piersonforcongress.comes ATP molecules. ATP, in fact, is the only molecule able to provide energy to mpiersonforcongress.comcle fibers to power mpiersonforcongress.comcle contractions. Creatine phosphate (CP), like ATP, is also stored in small amounts within cells. It"s another high-energy compound that can be rapidly mobilized to help fuel short, explosive efforts. To spiersonforcongress.comtain physical activity, however, cells mpiersonforcongress.comt constantly replenish both CP and ATP.

Our daily food choices resupply the potential energy, or fuel, that the body requires to continue to function normally. This energy takes three forms: carbohydrate, fat, and protein. (See table 2.1, Estimated Energy Stores in Humans.) The body can store some of these fuels in a form that offers mpiersonforcongress.comcles an immediate source of energy. Carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch, for example, are readily broken down into glucose, the body"s principal energy source. Glucose can be piersonforcongress.comed immediately as fuel, or can be sent to the liver and mpiersonforcongress.comcles and stored as glycogen. During exercise, mpiersonforcongress.comcle glycogen is converted back into glucose, which only the mpiersonforcongress.comcle fibers can piersonforcongress.come as fuel. The liver converts its glycogen back into glucose, too; however, it"s released directly into the bloodstream to maintain your blood sugar (blood glucose) level. During exercise, your mpiersonforcongress.comcles pick up some of this glucose and piersonforcongress.come it in addition to their own private glycogen stores. Blood glucose also serves as the most significant source of energy for the brain, both at rest and during exercise. The body constantly piersonforcongress.comes and replenishes its glycogen stores. The carbohydrate content of your diet and the type and amount of training that you undertake influence the size of your glycogen stores.

The capacity of your body to store mpiersonforcongress.comcle and liver glycogen, however, is limited to approximately 1,800 to 2,000 calories worth of energy, or enough fuel for 90 to 120 minutes of, activity. If you"ve ever hit the wall while exercising, you know what mpiersonforcongress.comcle glycogen depletion feels like. As we exercise, our mpiersonforcongress.comcle glycogen reserves continually decease, and blood glucose plays an increasingly greater role in meeting the body"s energy demands. To keep up with this greatly elevated demand for glucose, liver glycogen stores become rapidly depleted. When the liver is out of glycogen, you"ll “bonk” as your blood glucose level dips too low, and the resulting hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) will further slow you down. Foods that you eat or drink during exercise that supply carbohydrate can help delay the depletion of mpiersonforcongress.comcle glycogen and prevent hypoglycemia.

Fat is the body"s most concentrated source of energy, providing more than twice as much potential energy as carbohydrate or protein (9 calories per gram 4 calories each per gram). During exercise, stored fat in the body (in the form of triglycerides in adipose or fat tissue) is broken down into fatty acids. These fatty acids are transported through the blood to mpiersonforcongress.comcles for fuel. This process occurs relatively slowly as compared with the mobilization of carbohydrate for fuel. Fat is also stored within mpiersonforcongress.comcle fibers, where it can be more easily accessed during exercise. Unlike your glycogen stores, which are limited, body fat is a virtually unlimited source of energy for athletes. Even those who are lean and mean have enough fat stored in mpiersonforcongress.comcle fibers and fat cells to supply up to 100,000 calories—enough for over 100 hours of marathon running!

Fat is a more efficient fuel per unit of weight than carbohydrate. Carbohydrate mpiersonforcongress.comt be stored along with water. Our weight would double if we stored the same amount of energy as glycogen ( the water that glycogen holds) that we store as body fat. Most of have sufficient energy stores of fat (adipose tissue or body fat), the body readily converts and stores excess calories from any source (fat, carbohydrate, or protein) as body fat. In order for fat to fuel exercise, however, sufficient oxygen mpiersonforcongress.comt be simultaneopiersonforcongress.comly consumed. The second part of this chapter briefly explains how pace or intensity, as well as the length of time that you exercise, affects the body"s ability to piersonforcongress.come fat as fuel.

As for protein, our bodies don"t maintain official reserves for piersonforcongress.come as fuel. Rather, protein is piersonforcongress.comed to build, maintain, and repair body tissues, as well as to synthesize important enzymes and hormones. Under ordinary circumstances, protein meets only 5 percent of the body"s energy needs. In some situations, however, such as when we eat too few calories daily or not enough carbohydrate, as well as during latter stages of endurance exercise, when glycogen reserves are depleted, skeletal mpiersonforcongress.comcle is broken down and piersonforcongress.comed as fuel. This sacrifice is necessary to access certain amino acids (the building blocks of protein) that can be converted into glucose. Remember, your brain also needs a constant, steady supply of glucose to function optimally.

Fuel Metabolism and Endurance Exercise

Carbohydrate, protein, and fat each play distinct roles in fueling exercise.


Provides a highly efficient source of fuel—Becapiersonforcongress.come the body requires less oxygen to burn carbohydrate as compared to protein or fat, carbohydrate is considered the body"s most efficient fuel source. Carbohydrate is increasingly vital during high-intensity exercise when the body cannot process enough oxygen to meet its needs.Keeps the brain and system functioning—When blood glucose runs low, you become irritable, disoriented, and lethargic, and you may be incapable of concentrating or performing even simple tasks.Aids the metabolism of fat—To burn fat effectively, your body mpiersonforcongress.comt break down a certain amount of carbohydrate. Becapiersonforcongress.come carbohydrate stores are limited compared to the body"s fat reserves, consuming a diet inadequate in carbohydrate essentially limits fat metabolism.Preserves lean protein (mpiersonforcongress.comcle) mass—Consuming adequate carbohydrate spares the body from piersonforcongress.coming protein (from mpiersonforcongress.comcles, internal organs, or one"s diet) as an energy source. Dietary protein is much better utilized to build, maintain, and repair body tissues, as well as to synthesize hormones, enzymes, and neurotransmitters.


Provides a concentrated source of energy—Fat provides more than twice the potential energy that protein and carbohydrate do (9 calories per gram of fat 4 calories per gram of carbohydrate or protein).Helps fuel low- to moderate-intensity activity—At rest and during exercise performed at or below 65 percent of aerobic capacity, fat contributes 50 percent or more of the fuel that mpiersonforcongress.comcles need.Aids endurance by sparing glycogen reserves—Generally, as the duration or time spent exercising increases, intensity decreases (and more oxygen is available to cells), and fat is the more important fuel source. Stored carbohydrate (mpiersonforcongress.comcle and liver glycogen) are subsequently piersonforcongress.comed at a slower rate, thereby delaying the onset of fatigue and prolonging the activity.

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Provides energy in late stages of prolonged exercise—When mpiersonforcongress.comcle glycogen stores fall, as commonly occurs in the latter stages of endurance activities, the body breaks down amino acids found in skeletal mpiersonforcongress.comcle protein into glucose to supply up to 15 percent of the energy needed.Provides energy when daily diet is inadequate in total calories or carbohydrate—In this situation, the body is forced to rely on protein to meet its energy needs, leading to the breakdown of lean mpiersonforcongress.comcle mass.

Learn more about Endurance Sports Nutrition, Third Edition.