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“If it looks choose a duck, walks choose a duck, swims like a duck and quacks prefer a duck, it’s a duck”

Emil Mazey (1913-1983), the secretary-treasurer of the United Automobile Workers for 33 years, sassist at a labor meeting in 1946: “I can’t prove you are a Communist. But when I see a bird that quacks choose a duck, walks prefer a duck, has feathers and webbed feet and also associates via ducks—I’m absolutely going to assume that he IS a duck.” Wchange Reuther (1907-1970), the UAW president from 1946-1970, provided the “choose a duck” saying, as did labor leader James B. Carey (1911-1971). “Like a duck” has actually extfinished past its Communist-finding beginnings to end up being a part of general legal thinking. Wikipedia cites a comparable expression from Indiana poet James Whitcomb Riley, yet no such expression exists in any type of of his job-related. Wikipedia: Duck testThe duck test is a humorous term for a kind of inductive reasoning. This is its usual expression: “If it looks choose a duck, swims prefer a duck, and also quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck.” The test means that a perchild can recognize an unrecognized subject by observing that subject’s habitual qualities. It is occasionally supplied to respond to abstruse disagreements that somepoint is not what it appears to be. HistoryIndiana poet James Whitcomb Riley (1849–1916) might have coined the phrase when he created “when I see a bird that walks like a duck and also swims choose a duck and quacks like a duck, I speak to that bird a duck.” The term was later on popularized in the USA by Rictough Cunningham Patterchild Jr., USA ambassador to Guatemala in the time of the Cold War in 1950, that offered the phrase as soon as he accsupplied the Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán government of being Communist. Patterboy described his reasoning as follows: “Suppose you see a bird walking about in a farm yard. This bird has actually no label that claims ‘duck’. But the bird absolutely looks prefer a duck. Also, he goes to the pond and you notification that he swims choose a duck. Then he opens his beak and also quacks prefer a duck. Well, by now you have most likely got to the conclusion that the bird is a duck, whether he’s wearing a label or not.” Later recommendations to the duck test encompass Cardinal Richard Cushing’s, that offered the phrase in 1964 in recommendation to Fidel Castro. Variants include Douglas Adams’ Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency: If it looks choose a duck, and quacks prefer a duck, we have actually at least to think about the opportunity that we have a small aquatic bird of the household anatidae on our hands. Walter P. Reuther Library UAW Secretary Treasurer’s Office: Emil Mazey RecordsPosted December 4th, 2008 by drice Date: 1942-1955, bulk 1947-1952A long-time member of the Socialist Party, Emil Mazey started his union career with the United Auto Workers at the Briggs Manufacturing Co. He would play leading duties in wage negotiations, arranging locals, and also acquiring etop quality for African-Amerideserve to employees. He offered as secretary-treasurer of the UAW for over 30 years in addition to scolors on the executive boards of both the UAW and the Congress of Industrial Organizations, and also directorships of numerous UAW departments. His records reflect mainly his lengthy tenure as secretary-treasurer and encompass appeal board instances, neighborhood and also neighborhood documents, and officer, department, and also council files. Google News Archive29 September 1946, Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, pg. 1, col. 1:Communist ExposeThe Case of the DuckBy JOHN SENTINELWHAT is the Sentinel trying to do—promote a witch-hunting expedition? Not at all. The Sentinel is encouraging a duck hunting expedition, and also thereby hangs a tale. Emil Mazey, a Detroit labor leader, newly rose at a labor meeting to object to a proposed resolution as Communist. The male who presented the resolution tested Mazey to prove he was a Communist. Mazey retorted: “I can’t prove you are a Communist. But as soon as I view a bird that quacks favor a duck, walks choose a duck, has feathers and webbed feet and also associates via ducks—I’m absolutely going to assumer that he IS a duck.” Due to the fact that that timeless pronouncement, the duck is reported to have actually come to be a symbol in Detroit labor circles, and “Quack! Quack!” the literal rallying cry of the anti-Communist forces there whenever something that smells Communistic raises its head in union meeeting halls. Newsrecords.com30 September 1946, Sheboygan (WI) Press, “Mary Brendzej Denies She Is Communist In Interwatch,” pg. 8, cols. 1-2:Meanwhile, John O. McGlashan, Baraboo, special UIU organizer, declared: “we’re standing on the statements that we made Saturday to The Press: “When I watch a bird that quacks choose a duck, has feathers and also webbed feet and also associates through ducks, I’m certainly going to assume that he is a duck.” Newsfiles.com12 October 1946, The Financial Blog post (Toronto, ON), “How to Recognize a Red” by Ronald Williams, pg. 15, col. 1:“How perform you understand I’m a Communist?” the mover of the resolution asked. “Now, fellas,” sassist Emil (Mazey—ed.), turning to the meeting. “When you watch a bird that walks favor a duck, quacks like a duck and looks choose a duck and hangs roughly other ducks, you say, ‘Tright here is a duck!’” Google BooksNewsdocuments.com Level TalkVolume 11946Pg. 45:Proof PositiveEmil Mazey, the Detroit labor leader, once challenged to prove that a specific individual in his union was a Communist said: “I can’t prove you are a Communist. But as soon as I see a bird that quacks prefer a duck, walks like a duck, has actually feathers and also webbed feet and also associates via ducks, I’m certainly going to assume that he is a duck.” Google BooksTraitors in the Pulpit and Tfactor Toward GodBy Kenneth Goff Engletimber, CO: Kenneth Goff1946Pg. 53:Mazey retorted: “I can’t prove you are a Communist, but once I see a bird that quacks choose a duck, walks favor a duck, has actually feathers and webbed feet, and associates via ducks — I’m certainly going to assume that he is a duck.” Google BooksLabor Relations Program : hearings prior to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Eightieth Congress, initially session, on S. 55 and S.J. Res. 22, and also all various other bills and resolutions referred to the committee having actually the object of reducing industrial strife in the USA. January 23,28,29,30,31, February 4,5,6, and 7, 1947.By USA. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and also Public Welfare. Washington, DC: UNITED STATE Government Printing Office1947 Pg. 1684:These are solid indicators—and also, as soon as all these indicators suggest the very same way, we are inclined to embrace the statement of a prominent labor leader once in angry dispute he was asked to prove a male a Communist: “I can’t prove you are a Communist. But as soon as I view a bird that quacks favor a duck, walks prefer a duck, has actually feathers and also webbed feet and associates with ducks — I’m definitely going to assume that he is a duck.” Newsrecords.com12 March 1947, Wisconsin State Journal (Madichild, WI), “Nailing the Liars” (editorial), pg. 6, col. 1:Another witness prior to the home labor committee most likely pointed a better means simply last week. The record reveals his testimony like this: “The head of a union local as soon as accsupplied a member of being a Communist and the last challenged him to prove it. That union head responded, ‘When I see a bird that looks prefer a duck, walks like a duck and quacks favor a duck—I understand h is a duck. You’re a Communist.’ And that member he had labeled a Communist sat dvery own.” Newspapers.com27 March 1947, Moline (IL) Dispatch, ‘Treason Can Be Outlawed” (editorial), pg. 6, col. 1:You can’t swear that any kind of specific male on the federal payroll is a Communist. But, as one witness at Washington declared, when you see a fowl that walks choose a duck, looks choose a duck and quacks favor a duck, you understand it is a duck even if it doesn’t admit it. 3 September 1948, New York (NY) Times, pg. 1:“A door-opener for the Communist party is worse than a member of the Communist party. When someone walks choose a duck, swims like a duck, and also quacks like a duck, he’s a duck.”(James B. Carey, secretary-treasurer of the Congress of Industrial Organizations—ed.) Time magazineNational Affairs: He’s a DuckMonday, Sept. 13, 1948 (...)James B. Carey, secretary-treasurer of the C.I.O. and also onetime U.E. president, was a lot much better increated. Carey had been ousted from the U.E. presidency by the males behind Fitzgerald—Secretary-Treasurer Julius Emspak and Organizing Director James Matles. He called them, in addition to Fitzgerald and the entirety U.E. executive board, as males who “sacrifice the interests of the U.E. to promote the international policy of the Soviet Union.” Did Carey think that the U.E. was a front for the Communist Party? “On many inquiries, yes sir,” he answered. Did he believe that any kind of of the U.E. bosses he named were members of the C.P.? “I don’t think that makes any distinction,” shelp Carey. “When someone walks prefer a duck, swims like a duck, and quacks choose a duck, he’s a duck.” Google BooksUn-Amerihave the right to Activities in the State of Washington; The work-related of the Canwell CommitteeBy Vern Countrymale Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press1951Pg. 108:“But he did their organization and various other occupational, and as Mr. Walter Winchell claims, ‘When you watch a bird that looks prefer a duck, walks choose a duck, and quacks favor a duck, it’s a duck.’” Google BooksNo Wonder We Are LosingBy Robert Morris New York, NY: The Bookmailer1958Pg. 7:One listed lawyer put it this way: “If a creature walks like a duck, quacks prefer a duck, waddles choose a duck and flies favor a duck, I deserve to assume he is a duck.” Google BooksMen in Battle: A story of Americans in SpainBy Alvah Cecil Bessie New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons1975 (1939 original, but this passage through “John Birch Society” can not have actually been created in 1939)Pg. 367:For it is really extremely simple to convict civilization that have committed no crime if you exploit that timeless diagnosis-by- parallel beloved of the John Birch Society and also American Legion brass hats, and also both the federal government and also the many witch-hunting committees throughout the land have actually used it regularly: “If it looks prefer a duck, walks prefer a duck, swims favor a duck and also quacks favor a duck, it need to be a duck.” New York (NY) TimesEMIL MAZEY, LEADER OF AUTO WORKERS, IS DEAD OF CANCERAP (The New York Times); Obituary October 11, 1983, Tuesday Late City Final Edition, Section D, Page 31, Pillar 1, 222 words < DISPLAYING ABSTRACT >Emil Mazey, who was secretary-treasurer of the United Automobile Workers for 33 years, has passed away of cancer, the union sassist this day. He was 70 years old.