The piersonforcongress.comistry that Oxygen The piersonforcongress.comistry of Ozone Oxygen as an Oxidizing certified dealer
Peroxides Methods of preparing O2 The piersonforcongress.comistry of Sulfur
The impact of distinctions in the stamin of X-X and X=X Bonds The impact of differences in the Electronegativities that Sulfur and Oxygen The effect of distinctions in the ability of Sulfur and Oxygen to expand Their Valence shell

The piersonforcongress.comistry ofOxygen

Oxygen is the many abundant aspect on this planet. Theearth"s late is 46.6% oxygen through weight, the seas are 86%oxygen by weight, and the environment is 21% oxygen by volume. Thename oxygen originates from the Greek tribe oxys,"acid," and gennan, "to form orgenerate." Thus, oxygen literally method "acidformer." This surname was presented by Lavoisier, who noticedthat compounds well-off in oxygen, such together SO2 and also P4O10,dissolve in water to provide acids.

The electron construction of an oxygen atom 2s22p4 argues that neutral oxygen atoms canachieve an octet that valence electrons by sharing two pairs ofelectrons to form an O=O dual bond, as displayed in the figurebelow.

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According to this Lewis structure, every one of the electrons in theO2 molecule space paired. The compound should thereforebe diamagnetic it must be repelled by amagnetic field. Experimentally, O2 is discovered to it is in paramagneticit isattracted come a magnetic field. This deserve to be described by assumingthat there room two unpaired electrons in the

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* antibondingmolecular orbitals the the O2 molecule.


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This photograph shows that the liquid O2 is so strong attracted to a magnetic field that it will bridge the gap in between the poles that a horseshoe magnet.

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At temperatures listed below -183oC, O2condenses to type a liquid through a characteristic light blue colorthat results from the absorption of light v a wavelength of630 nm. This absorption is not seen in the gas phase and isrelatively weak even in the liquid because it needs that threebodies 2 O2 molecules and a photon collidesimultaneously, i beg your pardon is a very rare phenomenon, also in theliquid phase.

The piersonforcongress.comistry ofOzone

The O2 molecule is no the only elemental form ofoxygen. In the presence of lightning or another resource of aspark, O2 molecule dissociate to type oxygen atoms.


spark
O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 2 O(g)

These O atoms can react through O2 molecule to formozone, O3,


O2(g) + O(g) " width="17" height="9"> O3(g)

whose Lewis framework is shown in the figurebelow.

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Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) space examplesof allotropes (from the Greek definition "inanother manner"). By definition, allotropes room differentforms of an element. Since they have various structures,allotropes have different piersonforcongress.comical and also physical nature (seetable below).

Properties of allotrope of Oxygen


Oxygen (O2 ) Ozone (O3 )
Melting allude -218.75oC -192.5oC
Boiling Point -182.96oC -110.5oC
Density (at 20oC) 1.331 g/L 1.998 g/L
O-O shortcut order 2 1.5
O-O link length 0.1207 nm 0.1278 nm

Ozone is an rough compound with a sharp, pungent odor thatslowly decomposes come oxygen.


3 O3(g) " width="17" height="9"> 3 O2(g)

At short concentrations, ozone have the right to be fairly pleasant. (Thecharacteristic clean odor associated with summer thunderstorms isdue to the development of small amounts the O3.)

Exposure come O3 at greater concentrations leads tocoughing, rapid beating the the heart, chest pain, and generalbody pain. At concentrations above 1 ppm, ozone is toxic.

One of the characteristic properties of ozone is its abilityto absorb radiation in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum (> 300 nm), thereby giving a filter that protects us fromexposure come high-energy ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun.We have the right to understand the prominence of this filter if us think aboutwhat happens as soon as radiation native the sunlight is took in by our skin.

Electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible, andlow-energy sections of the ultraviolet spectrum ( 3 and CF2Cl2,which had actually been offered as refrigerants and as propellants in aerosolcans, were beginning to accumulate in the atmosphere. In thestratosphere, at altitudes of 10 to 50 km over the earth"ssurface, chlorofluorocarbons decompose to type Cl atom andchlorine oxides such together ClO when they absorb sunlight. Cl atomsand ClO molecules have an odd variety of electrons, as presented inthe figure below.

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As a result, these substances room unusually reactive. In theatmosphere, castle react through ozone or with the oxygen atoms thatare necessary to form ozone.


Cl + O3 " width="17" height="9"> ClO + O2
ClO + O " width="17" height="9"> Cl + O2

Molina and also Rowland postulated that these building material wouldeventually diminish the ozone shield in the stratosphere, withdangerous effects for organic systems that would certainly beexposed to increased levels of high-energy ultraviolet radiation.

Oxygen as anOxidizing certified dealer

Fluorine is the only facet that is much more electronegative thanoxygen. As a result, oxygen gains electrons in practically all itspiersonforcongress.comical reactions. Every O2 molecule must obtain fourelectrons to satisfy the octets the the 2 oxygen atom withoutsharing electrons, as shown in the number below.

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Oxygen because of this oxidizes metals to kind salts in i beg your pardon theoxygen atoms space formally present as O2- ions. Rustforms, for example, as soon as iron reacts through oxygen in the presenceof water to offer a salt the formally consists of the Fe3+and O2- ions, through an mean of three water moleculescoordinated to every Fe3+ ions in this solid.


H2O
4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 2 Fe2O3(s) 3 H2O

Oxygen likewise oxidizes nonmetals, such together carbon, come formcovalent compounds in i beg your pardon the oxygen formally has an oxidationnumber the -2.


C(s) + O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> CO2(g)

Oxygen is the perfect instance of one oxidizing agentbecause it increases the oxidation state of nearly any substancewith which the reacts. In the food of that reactions, oxygen isreduced. The substances the reacts through are as such reducingagents.

Peroxides

It takes 4 electrons to mitigate an O2 molecule toa pair the O2- ions. If the reaction stop after the O2molecule has gained only 2 electrons, the O22-ion displayed in the figure listed below is produced.

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This ion has actually two more electrons 보다 a neutral O2molecule, which means that the oxygen atoms need to share only asingle pair that bonding electrons to achieve an octet that valenceelectrons. The O22- ion is called the peroxideion because compounds that contain this ion room unusually rich inoxygen. They room not simply oxides they are (hy-)peroxides.

The easiest method to prepare a peroxide is to react salt orbarium steel with oxygen.


2 Na(s) + O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> Na2O2(s)
Ba(s) + O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> BaO2(s)

When these peroxides are allowed to react with a solid acid,hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced.


BaO2(s) + 2 H+(aq) " width="17" height="9"> Ba2+(aq) + H2O2(aq)

The Lewis structure of hydrogen peroxide has an O-Osingle bond, as displayed in the figure below.

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The VSEPR concept predicts that the geometry around each oxygenatom in H2O2 need to be bent. Yet thistheory cannot predict even if it is the four atoms should lie in thesame airplane or even if it is the molecule have to be visualized as lyingin two intersecting planes. The experimentally determinedstructure of H2O2 is presented in the figurebelow.

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The H-O-O bond angle in this molecule is only slightly largerthan the angle in between a pair of surrounding 2p atomicorbitals ~ above the oxygen atom, and the angle between the planesthat kind the molecule is slightly bigger than the tetrahedralangle.

The oxidation variety of the oxygen atoms in hydrogen peroxideis -1. H2O2 can as such act together anoxidizing agent and also capture two much more electrons to form a pair ofhydroxide ions, in i m sorry the oxygen has actually an oxidation number of-2.


H2O2 + 2 e- " width="17" height="9"> 2 OH-

Or, it have the right to act together a to reduce agent and also lose a pair ofelectrons to type an O2 molecule.


H2O2 " width="17" height="9"> O2 + 2 H+ + 2 e-

Reactions in i m sorry a compound simultaneously undergoes bothoxidation and reduction are called disproportionationreactions. The assets of the disproportionation that H2O2are oxygen and water.


2 H2O2(aq) " width="17" height="9"> O2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

The disproportionation that H2O2 is anexothermic reaction.


2 H2O2(aq) " width="17" height="9"> O2(g) + 2 H2O(l)
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H
o = -94.6 kJ/mol H2O

This reaction is relatively slow, however, in the absence of acatalyst, such as dust or a metal surface. The principal supplies ofH2O2 revolve roughly its oxidizing ability.It is used in dilute (3%) services as a disinfectant. In moreconcentrated services (30%), the is offered as a bleaching agent forhair, fur, leather, or the hardwood pulp used to make paper. In veryconcentrated solutions, H2O2 has actually been usedas rocket fuel because of the ease through which it decomposes togive O2.

Methods ofPreparing O2

Small amounts of O2 gas deserve to be prepared in anumber the ways.

1. By decomposing a dilute systems of hydrogen peroxide withdust or a metal surface as the catalyst.


2 H2O2(aq) " width="17" height="9"> O2(g) + 2 H2O(l)

2. By reacting hydrogen peroxide with a solid oxidizingagent, such as the permanganate ion, MnO4-.


5 H2O2(aq) + 2 MnO4-(aq) + 6 H+(aq) " width="17" height="9"> 2 Mn2+(aq) + 5 O2(g) + 8 H2O(l)

3. By happen an electric present through water.


electrolysis
2 H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"> 2 H2(g) + O2(g)

4. By heater potassium chlorate (KClO3) in thepresence of a catalyst till it decomposes.


MnO2
2 KClO3(s) " width="17" height="9"> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)

The piersonforcongress.comistry ofSulfur

Because sulfur is directly listed below oxygen in the regular table,these elements have similar electron configurations. Together a result,sulfur forms numerous compounds that room analogs the oxygen compounds,as shown in the table below. Examples in this table show how theprefix thio- deserve to be offered to indicate compounds in whichsulfur replace instead replace an oxygen atom. The thiocyanate (SCN-)ion, for instance, is the sulfur-containing analog that the cyanate(OCN-) ion.

Oxygen Compounds and Their Sulfur Analogs


Oxygen Compounds Sulfur Compounds
Na2O (sodium oxide) Na2S (sodium sulfide)
H2O (water) H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
O3 (ozone) SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
CO2 (carbon dioxide) CS2 (carbon disulfide)
OCN- (cyanate) SCN- (thiocyanate)
OC(NH2)2 (urea) SC(NH2)2 (thiourea)

There are four principal differences in between the piersonforcongress.comistry ofsulfur and oxygen.

1. O=O dual bonds are much stronger than S=S dual bonds.

2. S-S solitary bonds are virtually twice as strong as O-O singlebonds.

3. Sulfur (EN = 2.58) is much much less electronegativethan oxygen (EN = 3.44).

4. Sulfur can increase its valence covering to hold an ext than eightelectrons, however oxygen cannot.

These watch minor differences have necessary consequencesfor the piersonforcongress.comistry of these elements.

The impact ofDifferences in the strength of X-X and X=X Bonds

The radius of a sulfur atom is about 60% bigger than that ofan oxygen atom.

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As a result, it is harder for sulfur atom to come closeenough together to type bonds. S=S twin bonds space thereforemuch weaker than O=O dual bonds.

Double bonds between sulfur and oxygen or carbon atoms can befound in compound such together SO2 and also CS2 (seefigure below). But these twin bonds are lot weaker than theequivalent dual bonds to oxygen atoms in O3 or CO2.The bond dissociation enthalpy for a C=S dual bond is 477kJ/mol, for example, whereas the bond dissociation enthalpy for aC=O double bond is 745 kJ/mol.

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Elemental oxygen is composed of O2 molecule in whicheach atom completes the octet that valence electron by share twopairs of electrons v a single neighboring atom. Due to the fact that sulfurdoes not kind strong S=S double bonds, element sulfur usuallyconsists the cyclic S8 molecule in which each atomcompletes the octet by forming solitary bonds to 2 neighboringatoms, as presented in the number below.

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S8 molecules deserve to pack to type more than onecrystal. The many stable form of sulfur is composed of orthorhombiccrystals that S8 molecules, which room often discovered nearvolcanoes. If this crystals room heated until they melt and also themolten sulfur is then cooled, an allotrop of sulfur consistingof monoclinic crystals of S8 molecules isformed. These monoclinic crystals slowly transform themselvesinto the more stable orthorhombic structure over a duration oftime.

The tendency of an element to form bonds to chin is called catenation(from the Latin catena, "chain"). Becausesulfur develops unusually strong S-S solitary bonds, that is better atcatenation than any type of element except carbon. As a result, theorthorhombic and monoclinic forms of sulfur room not the onlyallotropes of the element. Allotropes of sulfur likewise exist thatdiffer in the dimension of the molecules that kind the crystal. Cyclicmolecules the contain 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12 sulfur atom areknown.

Sulfur melts in ~ 119.25oC to form a yellow liquidthat is less viscous than water. If this liquid is heated to 159oC,it turns into a dark red liquid the cannot be poured from itscontainer. The viscosity of this dark red liquid is 2000 timesgreater 보다 that the molten sulfur because the cyclic S8molecules open up up and also link together to kind long chains of asmany together 100,000 sulfur atoms.


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16 K(s) + S8(s) " width="17" height="9"> 8 K2S(s)

This is no the only product that have the right to be obtained, however. Avariety of polysulfide ions v a fee of -2 have the right to be producedthat different in the number of sulfur atom in the chain.

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The result ofDifferences in the Electronegativities the Sulfur and Oxygen

Because sulfur is much much less electronegative than oxygen, that ismore likely to type compounds in i m sorry it has a positiveoxidation number (see table below).

Common Oxidation Numbers for Sulfur


Oxidation Number Examples
-2 Na2S, H2S
-1 Na2S2, H2S2
0 S8
+1 S2Cl2
+2 S2O32-
+21/2 S4O62-
+3 S2O42-
+4 SF4, SO2, H2SO3, SO32-
+5 S2O62-
+6 SF6, SO3, H2SO4, SO42-

In theory, sulfur deserve to react through oxygen to type either SO2or SO3, who Lewis frameworks are given in the figurebelow.


SO2
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SO3
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In practice, burning of sulfur compounds offers SO2,regardless of even if it is sulfur or a compound of sulfur is burned.

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S8(s) + 8 O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 8 SO2(g)
CS2(l) + 3 O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> CO2(g) + 2 SO2(g)
3 FeS2(s) + 8 O2(g) " width="17" height="9"> Fe3O4(s) + 6 SO2(g)

Although the SO2 created in these reactions shouldreact through O2 to type SO3, the rate of thisreaction is really slow. The price of the conversion of SO2into SO3 deserve to be greatly increased by including anappropriate catalyst.


V2O5/K2O
2 SO2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 2 SO3(g)

Enormous quantities of SO2 are created by industryeach year and also then convert to SO3, which deserve to be usedto develop sulfuric acid, H2SO4. In theory,sulfuric acid deserve to be made by dissolve SO3 gas inwater.


SO3(g) + H2O(l) " width="17" height="9"> H2SO4(aq)

In practice, this is not convenient. Instead, SO3is took in in 98% H2SO4, wherein it reactswith the water to type additional H2SO4molecules. Water is then added, as needed, to keep theconcentration the this solution between 96% and also 98% H2SO4by weight.

Sulfuric mountain is by far the most vital industrialpiersonforcongress.comical. That has even been said that there is a directrelationship between the amount of sulfuric acid a countryconsumes and its conventional of living. An ext than 50% the thesulfuric acid produced each year is used to make fertilizers. Therest is used to make paper, synthetic fibers and also textiles,insecticides, detergents, feed additives, dyes, drugs,antifreeze, paints and enamels, linoleum, fabricated rubber,printing inks, cellophane, photographic film, explosives,automobile batteries, and metals such together magnesium, aluminum,iron, and steel.

Sulfuric mountain dissociates in water to give the HSO4-ion, which is well-known as the hydrogen sulfate, or bisulfate, ion.


A variety of salts can be formed by replacing the H+ions in sulfuric acid v positively charged ions, such together theNa+ or K+ ions.


Sulfurous acid doesn"t dissociate in water to as an excellent extentas sulfuric acid, yet it is still possible to change the H+ions in H2SO3 with hopeful ions come formsalts.


Sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid are both examples of a classof compounds well-known as oxyacids, due to the fact that they areliterally acids the contain oxygen. Since they are negativeions (or anions) that contain oxygen, the SO32-and SO42- ion are recognized as oxyanions.The Lewis frameworks of several of the oxides the sulfur that formoxyacids or oxyanions are provided in the table below.


One of these oxyanions deserves one-of-a-kind mention. This ion,which is recognized as the thiosulfate ion, is created by the reactionbetween sulfur and also the sulfite (SO32-) ion.


The impact ofDifferences in the abilities of Sulfur and Oxygen to broaden TheirValence shell

The electron construction of oxygen and sulfur are usuallywritten as follows.


Although this notation shows the similarity in between theconfigurations that the 2 elements, the hides one importantdifference that enables sulfur to broaden its valence covering to holdmore than eight electrons.

Oxygen reacts with fluorine to form OF2.


The reaction stop at this point because oxygen have the right to hold onlyeight electrons in its valence shell, as shown in the figurebelow.

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Sulfur reacts v fluorine to form SF4 and SF6,shown in the figure below, since sulfur can broaden its valenceshell to hold 10 or also 12 electrons.


S8(s) + 16 F2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 8 SF4(g)
S8(s) + 24 F2(g) " width="17" height="9"> 8 SF6(g)