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Ethiopian Plateau
Ethiopian Plateau.

Where the uplifted surface lay at a short elevation for a an extremely long time and was covered by resistant sedimentary rock, the flatness the the plateau have the right to be particularly marked. The absent underlying the Colorado Plateau has undergone only an extremely mild deformation since around 1.7 billion years ago during Precambrian time (4.6 billion to 541 million years ago), and layers of really resistant limestone and also sandstone deposited throughout the Paleozoic Era (541 million come 252 million year ago) form its top surface in plenty of areas. The warming of the basic lithosphere in late Cenozoic time (66 million years back to the present) brought about that area to rise to its current elevation, and those erosion-resistant formations dating to Paleozoic time define the surfaces the make the remarkably level horizons in ~ the grand Canyon.

The good heights of some plateaus, such together the Plateau of Tibet or the Altiplano, are as result of crustal shortening. The geologic framework of plateaus the that kind is entirely different from that of the Colorado Plateau, because that instance. Crustal shortening, i m sorry thickens the tardy as explained above, has produced high hills along what are currently the margins of such plateaus. In many mountain ranges, streams and rivers deliver eroded material from the hills to the neighbouring plains. When drainage is internal and also streams and rivers deposit their debris in the valleys in between mountains, however, a plateau can form. The surface of this sort of plateau is identified by very flat, wide valleys surrounding by eroded hills and mountains. The rocks that consist of the mountains and the basement the the valleys are frequently strongly deformed, but the young sediment deposited in the valleys generally lies flat. Those plateaus usually survive erosion only in dry climates whereby erosion is slow. In numerous cases, the valleys, or basins, are occupied by flat dry lake bed (playas). Thus, plateaus constructed by crustal shortening room really hill ranges hidden in their own debris.

Plateau of Tibet
Southern Plateau that Tibet, China, near Mount Everest (background centre).

A third kind of plateau can kind where comprehensive lava flows (called overwhelming basalts or traps) and volcanic ash ask preexisting terrain, as exemplified through the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern joined States. The volcanism connected in such cases is commonly associated with warm spots. The lavas and also ash room generally carried long ranges from their sources, so that the topography is not overcame by volcanoes or volcano centres. The thickness of the volcanic rock can be tens to even hundreds of metres, and also the peak surface of overwhelming basalts is typically an extremely flat but often with sharply incised canyons and also valleys.

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The separation the plateaus into the over three species is not constantly easy, since two or even all 3 of the processes involved frequently operate simultaneously. For instance, where the uppermost mantle is specifically hot, volcanism is common. The Ethiopian Plateau, on which Precambrian rocks crop out, stand high since the underlying lithosphere has actually been heated, yet Cenozoic volcanic rocks cover lot of the plateau, especially those locations that room the flattest. Back the range is different, over there are active volcanoes and also young lavas covering some wide basins on the northern component of the Plateau of Tibet. All three processes—thermal expansion, crustal shortening, and volcanism—may have contributed to the high, level elevation of in ~ least part of the plateau.