Other alkali steel salts or LiX salt with various other anions often develop no improvement.
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From: Encyclopedia the Electrochemical power Sources, 2009
M. Tamm, R.J. Baker, in an extensive Organometallic Chemistry III, 2007
5.06.3.1.8.(iii).(c) team 1 and also 2 metal complexes
Alkali metal salts of
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Synthesis: Carbon through Two fastened Heteroatoms v at least One Carbon-to-Heteroatom multiple Link
Peter Quayle, in substantial Organic Functional team Transformations, 1995
184.108.40.206.2 The Semmelhack reaction
The alkali metal salts (7) and also (8) are easily prepared by reduction of the amino complicated (9) through lithium or sodium naphthalenide in THF under strictly anaerobic conditions. A stock solution of the salt (7) or (8) in THF is climate reacted v a carboxylic mountain chloride in THF at −78 °C to afford the acylate complex (10) which might be capped in the common manner in stimulate to create the carbene complex. The salt (7) and (8) space unreactive towards a range of functional groups (e.g., esters, benzylic halides, etc.) thereby allowing the arrival of the carbene moiety in a chemoselective fashion (Scheme 2) 87OM1839>. All at once yields are similar to those reported by Fischer in the instances where straight comparisons can be made.
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I. Haiduc, in reference Module in Chemistry, molecule Sciences and also Chemical Engineering, 2013
Group 1 Metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs
The alkali metal salts are important starting materials for practicaly any kind of dichalcogenoimidodiphosphinato complex, in metathesis reaction with metal salts and also are usually acquired by deprotonation that bis(chalcogenophosphino)amines (Q)R2PNHPR2(Q) (Q = O, S, Se, Te) through various simple reagents.
Lithium dichalcogenoimidodiphosphinates (TMEDA)Li
Sodium crown ether complexes
Nine lithium, rubidium and cesium crown ether complexes v
The reaction that Pri2PNHPPri2 through elemental selenium affords great yields that (Se)Pri2PNHPPri2(Se) which can be deprotonated with NaOMe to provide the salt salt, Na
Lithium salts of unsymmetrical dichalcogenoimidodiphosphinato anions
The ditelluroimidodiphosphinato salt Na(TMEDA)
Sodium salt of diseleno- and ditelluroimidodiphosphinates, Na
New mixed, unsymmetrical dichalcogenoimidodiphosph(in)ates, with R, R’ = Ph, OPh, Pri; Q, Q’ = O, S, Se, have been ready by condensation that R2P(Q)NH2 (R = Ph, OPh; Q = O, S, Se) through R’2P(Q’)Cl (R’ = Pri, Ph, OPh; Q’ = O, S, Se). Deprotonation through KOBut afforded the potassium salts, which deserve to react through PdCl2 to form the matching palladium(II) complexes.19
Sodium tert-butyldichalcogenoimidodiphosphinates, Na(TMEDA)<(QBut2PNPBut2Q)>, through Q = S, Se, Te, have actually been prepared and their one-electron oxidation v iodine produced neutral dimers
The alkali steel salts of dialkyl H-phosphonates react through N-alkoxypyridinium salt to give, via addition–elimination, dialkyl 2-pyridinylphosphonates (e.g. 190) in acceptable yield (Fig. 220.127.116.11) (301,302). They likewise react through 1-triphenylmethylpyridinium salt that lack α-substituents come generate similarly dialkyl 4-pyridinylphosphonates (191–192) (303,304). The synthetic of dialkyl heteroarylphosphonates, consisting of dialkyl pyridinylphosphonates, by palladium-catalysed coupling of dialkyl H-phosphonates with heteroaryl bromides or chlorides is questioned in a previous ar (Table 18.104.22.168) (285). A an approach for the preparation of diethyl 3-pyridinylphosphonate (193) based on such chemistry is provided in this section (292). The ready of dinucleoside 2- and 4-pyridinylphosphonates has also been reported (305,306). Pyridinylphosphonic mountain are also of biological interest (307).
Diethyl 2-pyridinylphosphonate (EtO)2P(O)C5H4N-2 (190) (301). n-Butyllithium (23% in hexane, 63 ml, 0.15 mol) was included dropwise end 2 h to stirred diethyl H-phosphonate (25.0 g, 0.18 mol) cooled to −20 to −30 °C. Come the result diethyl lithium phosphite was included N-methoxypyridinium methyl sulfate
Diisopropyl 4-pyridinylphosphonate (i-PrO)2P(O)C5H4N-4 (192) (303). Pyridine (10 ml) was included to a stirred equipment of triphenylcarbenium tetrafluoroborate (19.0 g, 58 mmol) in dichloromethane (250 ml) with cooling. ~ standing at 5 °C overnight, the result crystals that triphenylmethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate were collected by filtration (13.6 g). To a suspension of this crystals in benzene (130 ml) was included a solution of diisopropyl sodium phosphite (35 mmol) in diisopropyl H-phosphonate (14 ml) over 45 min at 5–10 °C. The mixture to be heated under reflux for 2 h and enabled to cool. Water (50 ml) was added and the organic phase was separated and extracted through 3 M hydrochloric mountain to recover the basic portion. Distillation the the crude oil base yielded pyridine and diisopropyl 4-pyridinylphosphonate (2.5 g, 30%; bp 104–105 °C/0.4 mmHg) which solidified on standing. Recrystallisation from hexane gave the pure product. Mp 45–46 °C.
Diethyl 3-pyridinylphosphonate (i-PrO)2P(O)C5H4N-3 (193) (292). Pd(PPh3)4 (72 mg, 0.06 mmol, 5 mol%), Cs2CO3 (489 mg, 1.50 mmol) and 3-bromopyridine (0.21 g, 1.38 mmol) were placed in a microwave tube. The pipe was sealed v a lid and also filled v nitrogen gas, by using three cycles the vacuum, and then nitrogen. THF (5 ml) and also diethyl H-phosphonate (0.17 g, 1.25 mmol) were added successively with the septum. The pipe was cook in the microwave oven (SmithCreator single-mode microwave cavity – an individual Chemistry AB, Uppsala, Sweden – producing a consistent irradiation the 300 W at 2450 MHz) for 10 min at 120 °C. ~ cooling, the solids to be filtered off and also washed through dichloromethane. The merged filtrate and washings were evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography top top silica gel, eluting with 95:5 dichloromethane–methanol, to offer the title link (0.26 g, 86%). δP (162 MHz, CDCl3) 15.7 ppm.
L.N. Sidorov, S.I. Lopatin, in Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and also Spectrometry (Third Edition), 2017
Electron Affinity Determination
Addition of facility alkali metal salts to a high-temperature system leads to an unfavorable ion development in the vapor. KEMS-IME have the right to be applied to electron affinities and also the estimation of an adverse ion enthalpies the formation. The EA that fluorides and oxides of change metals in their greater oxidation says were determined. Almost all of these compounds have EA in the range 3.5–7.0 eV. Applications of this an approach to fullerene vapors has yielded the electron affinities for the series of higher fullerenes Cn (n ¼ 70, 72,…, 106).
Preparation that the alkali metal salts the purine bases (commonly v sodium hydride) permits the generation of a solid nitrogen nucleophile on the purine base (Scheme 4). This varieties can be used for direct SN2 displacement the an appropriate leaving group from the C-1 position of the carbohydrate. When used in conjunction with the α-chloro derivative of 2-deoxyribose (11), the reaction proceeds with inversion of construction to create only the β-anomer that the 2′-deoxynucleoside (21). In some cases regioisomeric products an outcome (see (24) and (25) in scheme 4), however such product mixture can often be much more easily separated 보다 the corresponding mixtures that α- and β-anomeric isomers. Owing to the stereochemical specificity of this reaction, it is more than likely the most effective glycosylation procedure because that the ready of 2′-deoxynucleoside derivatives that the purine heterocycles.
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The reaction of an alkali metal salt of a hydrocarbon, alcohol, or amine gives a convenient means to prepare a variety of both coordination and organometallic complexes (eqn <8>). That is, perhaps, the most broadly applicable that the general methods, usable through the team 2 steels from beryllium to barium. The most common pairing the reagents has been v potassium salts and alkaline-earth dihalides, specifically the iodides, since removal that the by-product (insoluble alkali steel salts) is the many straightforward v this combination. The usage of BeBr2(SMe2)2 offers a soluble kind of beryllium bromide once ethers need to be avoided since it is dissolve in Me2S and CH2Cl2.68 symptom can happen with lithium-based reagents, which seem particularly prone come the formation of anionic “-ate” complexes (e.g., eqn <9>).69,70 such reactions additionally can take place with potassium salt (e.g., eqn <10>) and also can be insidious since the existence of the potassium may not be basic to detect.71 for example, some varieties of calciate complexes, e.g., KxCay
Acylation the amine salts or alkali metal salts of hydrogen selenide using acid chlorides can be supposed to be a general route come bis(acyl) selenides. However, the initial commodities in this reaction are not the desired bis(acyl) selenides but O-acyl selenonesters as shown in Schemes 21 and 22 91JOC3776>. In the case of aliphatic acid chlorides, the resulting O-acyl selenonesters quickly isomerize to much more stable bis(acyl) selenides 72ACS1465, 89ZN(B)1050>. However, aromatic selenonesters are more stable 보다 aliphatic ones, fan to conjugation between the aromatic ring and the seleno-carbonyl group, and also therefore carry out not isomerize come bis(acyl) selenides 72ACS1465>.