Pressure from the way you walk or her foot form can cause a bunion, a ache bony bump on the exterior of the big toe. Small shoes and standing for lengthy periods have the right to make bunion pain worse. If bunion pads, toes spacers and better-fitting shoes don’t help, you might need surgical procedure (a


What is a bunion?

A bunion is a bump that develops on the outside of the large toe. This foot deformity occurs from years of pressure on the huge toe share (the metatarsophalangeal, or MTP, joint). Eventually, the toe share gets the end of alignment, and also a bony bump forms. The medical term because that bunions is hallux abducto valgus.

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Who can get a bunion?

Up come one in three Americans have actually bunions. The foot problem is more common in older adults, especially women. Bunions can type on one or both feet.

What are the species of bunions?

Bunions top top the big toe space the many common. Other varieties include:

Congenital hallux valgus: part babies are born with bunions.Juvenile or adolescent hallux valgus: Tweens and also teens in between the eras of 10 and 15 may construct bunions.Tailor’s bunion: also called a bunionette, this bunion creates on the outside base that the little (pinky) toe.

What causes bunions?

Pressure indigenous the way you go (foot mechanics) or the shape of your foot (foot structure) causes your big toe to bend in toward the second toe. Bunions happen gradually over time. Stand for long periods and wearing ill-fitting, narrow shoes deserve to make bunion pains worse, but they don’t reason the problem.

What space the risk determinants for bunions?

You may be more likely to gain a bunion if friend have:

Foot injuries.

What space the signs of bunions?

A bunion resembles a turnip — red and swollen. In fact, some sources say the word bunion comes from the Greek word for turnip. Various other symptoms include:

Inability to bend the large toe, or pain and also burning as soon as you shot to bend it.Difficulty wearing constant shoes.Numbness in the large toe.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes bunions?

Pressure native the method you to walk (foot mechanics) or the form of her foot (foot structure) causes your big toe to bending in towards the second toe. Bunions happen gradually over time. Was standing for long periods and wearing ill-fitting, narrow shoes can make bunion ache worse, but they don’t reason the problem.

What room the risk factors for bunions?

You may be more likely to acquire a bunion if friend have:

Foot injuries.

What are the signs of bunions?

A bunion each other a turnip — red and swollen. In fact, some resources say words bunion originates from the Greek word because that turnip. Various other symptoms include:

Inability to bending the big toe, or pain and burning as soon as you shot to bend it.Difficulty wearing regular shoes.Numbness in the huge toe.


Diagnosis and Tests

How space bunions diagnosed?

Your medical care provider can diagnose a bunion by looking at it. You may additionally get X-rays to examine for share damage and bone alignment.

Management and Treatment

How are bunions controlled or treated?

Bunions don’t walk away. Therapy often concentrates on relieving symptoms and may include:

Bunion pads and also taping: Over-the-counter bunion pads have the right to cushion the area and also ease pain. You can likewise use medical tape to save the foot in the exactly position. Footwear changes: convert to shoes v wide, deep toe boxes have the right to take pressure off of her toes. Friend may be able to use a stretching machine to widen shoes you already own. Orthotic devices: Over-the-counter or custom-made shoe inserts (orthotics) can assist to regulate alignment worries such as pronation that might be contributing to bunion formation. Girlfriend can additionally place a spacer in between the big toe and 2nd digit. Some human being find relief by put on a splint at night to store the large toe straight. Physical therapy: Massage, physical therapy and also ultrasound therapy can break up soft-tissue adhesions to minimize pain and inflammation. There room actually exercises the can help improve muscle strength about the bunion and can modestly enhance alignment. Surgery: If nonsurgical treatments don’t help, and also walking becomes incredibly painful, your provider may recommend surgery. This procedure is referred to as a Your provider clears the bunion and also realigns skeleton to bring the huge toe back into the correct position.


How deserve to I avoid a bunion?

Proper-fitting footwear is crucial to avoiding bunions or keeping an present bunion from obtaining worse. Your medical care provider deserve to offer tips on how to select appropriate shoes. In general, you should buy shoes v a vast toe box and also soft soles. Protect against shoes that room narrow and pointed at the tip, and also high heels the put push on the former of the foot. If you have actually flatfeet or one more inherited structural foot problem, custom-fitted orthotics can assist prevent, or slow-moving the development of, bunions.

Outlook / Prognosis

What space the complications of bunions?

Having a bunion may rise your hazard of:


What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with bunions?

Without the ideal care, like transforming your footwear or using orthotics, bunions can get worse end time. If you have actually severe pain when you walk or stand, friend may come to be sedentary (inactive), i m sorry isn’t an excellent for your health or top quality of life. Most world get symptom relief v over-the-counter aids or v treatments in ~ a clinical office. If needed, surgery have the right to help.

Living With

When must I speak to the doctor?

You should call your medical care provider if friend experience:

Difficulty walking.Lack of motion in the large toe.Severe inflammation or redness in toe joints.

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What questions need to I ask doctor?

You might want to ask your medical care provider:

Why go I acquire a bunion?What are the finest treatments because that bunions?What have the right to I execute to reduced the danger of obtaining a bunion on various other foot?How have the right to I lower the danger of other foot problems like calluses and corns?What symptom can occur if I do not treat mine bunion?

A keep in mind from Cleveland Clinic

Bunions are an extremely common. While over-the-counter bunion pads and also pain relievers lull symptoms, you have to see a healthcare provider. Her provider deserve to recommend other treatment options, such as shoe equipment modifications, physical therapy, medications and also orthotics. Treatments can reduce pain and also stop bunion symptom from gaining worse. If the pain i do not care severe, surgery to remove the bunion and realign the large toe can assist you gain moving again.